Saturday, May 23, 2020
The beginning of colonial life started off with great living conditions. There was a lack of disease and good amount of clean drinking. These new conditions for the colonist added a few years to the life expectancies. Because of the new great life spans of the colonist, the growth of New England was at an all-time high. Even though there was a great start in New England, Chesapeake was far from growing at the time. It was full of disease; almost all of the men and women were widowers. And their children became orphans. Even though there were countless deaths, disease captured mostly European women. The men then began to have relations with African and Native American women. This then became known as miscegenation. Native Americans andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The Native Americans then proceeded to take tactics from the Europeans. This then would help and give them an advantage in fight. Both sides of the Native American groups fought on this conflict. Washington then gave up and soon the Colonial militia was taken over by General Braddock, all because the French advanced in their proceedings of Fort Necessity. In 1755 the French were victorious until 1758 when the British won a series of battles. The British captured the French city of Quebec in 1759 while in 1760 the French signed a peace treaty with the British. In this treaty Canada will no longer be controlled by France. All the while the British allowed religious freedom to also take place here, which still was not present in the other thirteen colonies. The end of the war was official with the Treaty of Paris. Then there was the Treaty of Paris. This is when France surrendered Canada to Britain with Louisiana under Spanish Control. These wars doubled the debt for the English in its colonies and England. Since there was an extensive amount of British troops, taxes were increased and this caused the American Revolution that was an anti- British movement. Furthermore the Colonial period first had a grea t growth while others such as Chesapeake had numerous deaths. Britain and France had ongoing conflicts over control, the Native Americans and Africans then became involved while the militias were taken
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Regis University is a private Jesuit university with an acceptance rate of 60%. Founded in 1877, Regis University is located in Denver, Colorado. Regis motto, Men and Women in Service of Others, is reflective of the schools emphasis on community service. Undergraduates can choose from 20 degree programs within 5 colleges and schools. Professional fields in business and health care are the most popular among undergraduates. The university has a 13-to-1Ã student / faculty ratio. On the athletic front, the Regis Rangers compete in the NCAA Division II Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference (RMAC). Considering applying to Regis University? Here are the admissions statistics you should know, including average SAT/ACT scores and GPAs of admitted students. Acceptance Rate During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, Regis University had an acceptance rate of 60%. This means that for every 100 students who applied, 60 students were admitted, making Regis admissions process competitive. Admissions Statistics (2017-18) Number of Applicants 7,297 Percent Admitted 60% Percent Admitted who Enrolled (Yield) 12% SAT Scores and Requirements Regis University requires that all applicants submit either SAT or ACT scores. During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 71% of admitted students submitted SAT scores. SAT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th Percentile 75th Percentile ERW 530 620 Math 520 610 ERW=Evidence-Based Reading and Writing This admissions data tells us that most of Regis admitted students fall within the top 35% nationally on the SAT. For the evidence-based reading and writing section, 50% of students admitted to Regis scored between 530 and 620, while 25% scored below 530 and 25% scored above 620. On the math section, 50% of admitted students scored between 520 and 610, while 25% scored below 520 and 25% scored above 610. Applicants with a composite SAT score of 1230 or higher will have particularly competitive chances at Regis University. Requirements Regis University does not require the SAT writing section or SAT Subject tests. Note that Regis participates in the scorechoice program, which means that the admissions office will consider your highest score from each individual section across all SAT test dates. ACT Scores and Requirements Regis requires that all applicants submit either SAT or ACT scores. During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 46% of admitted students submitted ACT scores. ACT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th Percentile 75th Percentile English 21 27 Math 19 26 Composite 21 27 This admissions data tells us that most of Regis admitted students fall within the top 42% nationally on the ACT. The middle 50% of students admitted to Regis received a composite ACT score between 21 and 27, while 25% scored above 27 and 25% scored below 21. Requirements Regis University does not require the ACT writing section. Unlike many universities, Regis superscores ACT results; your highest subscores from multiple ACT sittings will be considered. GPA In 2018, the average high school GPA of Regis Universitys incoming freshmen class was 3.57, and over 60% of incoming students had average GPAs of 3.5 and above. These results suggest that most successful applicants to Regis University have primarily high B grades. Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph Regis University Applicants Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph. Data courtesy of Cappex. The admissions data in the graph is self-reported by applicants to Regis University. GPAs are unweighted. Find out how you compare to accepted students, see the real-time graph, and calculate your chances of getting in with a free Cappex account. Admissions Chances Regis University, which accepts over half of applicants, has a competitive admissions pool with above average GPAs and SAT/ACT scores. However, Regis has aÃ holistic admissionsÃ process involving other factors beyond your grades and test scores. AÃ strong applicationÃ essayÃ andÃ a glowing letter of recommendationÃ can strengthen your application, as can participation inÃ meaningful extracurricular activitiesÃ and aÃ rigorous course schedule. Applicants are encouraged to visit and tour campus. Students with particularly compelling stories or achievements can still receive serious consideration even if their test scores are outside Regis Universitys average range. In the graph above, the green and blue dots represent admitted students. Most had SAT scores (ERWM) of 950 or higher, ACT composite scores of 18 or higher, and a high school GPA of B- or better. A significant number of successful applicants had grades in the A range. If You Like Regis University, You May Also Like These Schools University of ColoradoÃ UC Colorado Springs Ã UC DenverÃ University of DenverÃ Colorado School of the Mines All admissions data has been sourced from the National Center for Education Statistics and Regis University Undergraduate Admissions Office.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Respect the learning and safety of others: Be punctual. Be safe. Be thoughtful. We will write a custom essay sample on Environmental Science I Syllabus or any similar topic only for you Order Now Exploration of science through trial and error and testing hypotheses will be fostered in this class, so an environment of respect and safety is key. Treat others the way you want to be treated, with thoughtfulness and courtesy. Be prompt: early or on time. No oneÃ¢â¬â¢s time is more important that the next person. We must use the time we have to learn together wisely. Respect every member of the classroomÃ¢â¬â¢s personal space, belongings, and ideas. All students are to take care of the materials and lab environment created in our class. Leave it as it was when you got there or in better condition. Derogatory comments (including profanity) will not be tolerated. Science is learned through experiment, so you will be taught and tested over the safety of our science lab space, to ensure safety. You are expected to follow these science lab procedures and policies. O Note: Due to safety considerations, all bags and belongings will be placed in the teacher-designated area. This will be strictly enforced for our safety. 2. Strive for excellence each day. Be prepared. Be engaged. Be responsible. Do your best! Perfection is not attainable, but if we chase perfection we can catch excellence. Ã¢â¬ Vince Lombardi Everyone must be prepared, so we do not waste time. Have your all your materials for class with you in your seat when the bell rings. Actively participate and engage in class activities and discussions. Always do your best work. I expect quality in every assignment, no matter how small or large. Students are responsi ble for assignment due dates, Late Work Policy, and Make-up Work Policy on next page. Students are expected to follow all Little Rock School District policies, which are See Ms. Thompson Rituals and Procedures document for specific daily classroom rituals. Consequences for Poor Decisions: All decisions in life have equal consequences. Below are the disciplinary steps taken if you choose to not follow the classroom expectations, rituals, and procedures. 1. Verbal Warning 2. Parent Phone Call 3. Referral to Assistant Principal 4. Referral with SIS Recommendation 5. Referral with ZOOS Recommendation Parent Conference The teacher reserves the right to send any student out of the classroom or to the office on referral for extremely disruptive, inappropriate, or severe behavior. Under no circumstance should the teacher have to ask a student to leave the classroom more than once. Absences and Make-up Work: All absent students will be allowed to make up work. This is the responsibility of the student, not the teacher. The student is responsible for work assigned prior to his or her absence. Announced deadlines for long-term assignments, projects, and/or research papers must be honored regardless of attendance. Family emergencies are the only exception to this rule. Tests must be made up the day of your return to lass. See the USSR regarding this policy. Students will need to retrieve their make- up work from a responsible classmate and our online Gaggle classroom where all assignments and notes are posted. Late Work: Any minor assignment can be turned in within one day of the original due date for half credit. It will not be accepted after that time. You are expected to meet all class deadlines. Students must sign the Ã¢â¬Å"Late WorkÃ¢â¬ log if they fail to meet the announced deadline. Food and Drink: Students are allowed to have drinks with lids. However, this is a privilege that will be lab days. Communication and Extra Help: I want you to succeed, and I believe that you can. If you ever meet an obstacle on your path to success, please feel free to visit for extra help in the morning before school or after school. I am always available by email (Meghan. thompson@lrsd. Org) to assist you or your parents however I can. Please do not wait until the end of the nine weeks to seek help if you are having trouble. This will be too late to get you back on track to succeed. Deadline is a great way for both your family and you to keep up with your grades, use it frequently. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s work together to make it the best year we can! How to cite Environmental Science I Syllabus, Papers
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Question: Discuss about operating system authentication strategies, attack strategies and techniques and security measures techniques? Answer: Introduction A computer system comprises of hardware, software and processes that is a kind of abstraction of a real business or process model that exists in the world. These systems are used by humans that belong to a system that is outside this computer system. Thus, computer systems use an abstract concept to identify them and they are presented as a user account. This user account acts as an object that has multiple attributes ranging from a login ID to security identifier. Security involves prevention of unauthorized people or entities from accessing systems. It is established to maintain the confidentiality of data, integrity of the same and assuring timely availability of information to authorized people or entities. Background The operating systems play a crucial role in any network as it interacts with multiple devices and machines over a network such that it allocates resources for performing all operations involving these devices as well as involving internal system. These resources include CPU, drive memory, communication ports, and drivers and so on. Moreover, all the applications runover an operating system and use its resources and thus, security of operating system is of prime importance to any security breach or issue can affect all applications running on an operating system. Moreover, a break into one application by a hacker can also cause breaches of security in other applications running on the operating system if the operating system is severely affected(Yang, 2003). To understand how a security system can protect unauthorized users from entering an operating system, it would be essential to understand the process of authentication that is used by operating systems. Moreover, there would also be required an understanding of how attacks may happen over an operating system by unauthorized users if security measures have to be taken. Lastly, security measures and techniques can be studied to understand how they stop or prevent attached in the case of real operating system protection. Thus, in this report, the critical analyzes would be followed in a stepwise manner beginning with the understanding of the Authorization strategies used for protection of operating systems, attack techniques used by unauthorized users for penetrating operating system and the strategies that are used for protection by security providers. Critical Analysis Operating System Authentication Strategies Authentication for humans can be based on five criteria that include something they know such as password or PIN, something they have such as token number, something they do such that they can be asked to perform certain actions to be able to authorize themselves, something they are such as biometric identification and where they are by identification of location. Something they know: This method of authentication is very commonly used, and the authentication passwords are easy to guess making the system vulnerable to unauthorized access. Traditionally passwords used plaintext that was very easy to crack but today systems use stored hashed. However, some of the authentication schemes such as challenge and response still need plaintext. A usual hashed authentication process would involve storage of pass word as a function f(PW) where f cannot be inverted. When a user enters a password, PW, f(PW) is calculated and compared for authentication. For prevention of pre-computation attacks, random salt is added while changing password such that the function stored is salt, f(PW,salt). Further, access control systems are used by operating systems to protect these hashed passwords. However, hackers can still run password guessing programs even in case challenge/response approach is used. Something they have: In such cases, a challenge is thrown to the users having secret cryptographic key for specific time and day often in combination with a PIN such that the user can be guarded against loss or theft of confidential data. Something they do: The users are asked to perform an action that can be used to identify them as humans to ensure that is not the malicious code trying to spoof in the system. User of two-factor authentication, captcha, one-time password generation are some of the examples of such approaches. Something they are: Biometric identification methods such as Fingerprint readers and iris scans work best when they are stored locally as otherwise they can face scenarios of false positive or false negative and user can become a victim of spoofing attacks. Somewhere they are: A user can be identified as per the location such that if the location from where user logs into a system is other than the usual location, the login attempts can either be prevented, or user can be warned about possible attacks such as done in cases of email accounts such as provided by Google. Attack Strategies and Techniques There can be several types of attack strategies that can be used for penetrating operating systems. Trojan horses, login spoofing and use of buggy software are some of the very common techniques used by attackers. Trojan Horses: Trojan horses trick users to run programs that have obnoxious codes. These programs may include viruses and worms, and when they are run by a users, they can change file permissions. Login Spoofing: In login spoofing, a fake prompt asking for credentials and if the same are entered, ID and passwords can be obtained by hackers from users. Computer Virus: It is a program containing malicious code that has the capability to copy itself in a system without permission using deception strategies such as overwriting of genuine files, acting companion to an EXE file, appending code to EXE files such as done by Vienna virus, insertion of malicious code at the start of a program, filling code into an empty space without affecting original program such as done by Lehigh virus, compression of host content such as done by Whales virus, boot sector virus, macro virus running on specific applications such as Microsoft Word, and so on. Security Measures techniques There are several security measures taken, and many of these are targeted to prevent specific types of attacks. For instance, to protect a Trojan Horse program to affect an operating system, operating systems provide Sandboxes, which is an environment in which a program can be executed without affecting rest of the machine that is used. Another trick is having a very limited interaction with the operating system and the outside world, but it can be very difficult to follow in many cases. For preventing login spoofing, trusted paths are used with a user initiated sequence that can guarantee that right operating system is reached out. Military Classification Model Blocking executable is another strategy that is commonly used for preventing unauthorized software runs. However, this causes issues when one tries to run executable files for fixing bugs. In such cases, certified systems make use of Military Classification Model, which define security levels such that every document can be classified as belonging to a certain level with each level being given a set of clearances. One can view only those documents that have these clearances. These classifications identify documents as confidential, secret, top secret and can compartmentalize the same into Crypto, Subs or NoForns. Clearances have to be obtained for each compartment to be able to view files. Systems using such classification schemes for documents security are called multi-level security systems(CS, 2015). Discretionary Access Control As per US government, Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria is used for operating system security assurance which requires operating systems to use Discretionary Access Control (DAC). This to some extent provides protection to the system in a time-sharing environment or in case of multi-tasking thereby protecting operating system mainstream. However, this does not guarantee protection of individual applications that run on the operating system. A B Class level of security is mandatory in the case of use of Mandatory Access Control (MAC), but the benefit of the same cannot be drawn upon in the systems using DAC efficiently. Preventive Measures In 2009, an investigation was done by DSD on targeted cyber intrusions and with the preventive mechanisms studied, in 2010, Australian Defense Signals Doctorate (DSD) list was published with 35 mitigation strategies identified, out of which top key measures of prevention including patch updating of operating system, patching of third-party applications, restricting of admin privileges to regular users, and use of only white-listed applications. When white-listing is implemented, it makes it difficult for the intruder to compromise a communication and information system as it ensures that only authorized applications are allowed to run on a system thereby preventing applications with malicious codes from running. Before operating system security can be established and patches are properly upgraded as required, risks have to be assessed, and a system deployment plan has to be created. System security planning process may be used for preventing operating systems. A proper planning proce ss may be used for ensuring complete safety through identification of critical content to be secured, use of network protection mechanisms and use of appropriate processes for maintenance of the operating system security(Australian Government, 2012). The first step in securing a system as used by major organizations or security officials is system hardening which involves installation of operating system and its patches. Further, operating system would be hardened and configured. Further additional security controls such as firewalls, anti-virus and intrusion detection systems can be installed for further hardening of security of operating system. Initially, there were various detection systems used for identifying patterns of virus activities such as string scan, mismatch detection, wildcards, bookmarking, smart scan, skeleton detection, specific virus detection and heuristics. However, only the use of security systems is not sufficient unless they are tested for their capability to address security needs of an operating system. Moreover, detection methods can only be useful in the cases of known viruses such that they are required to be frequently updated to remain effective for new cases of attacks. Also, detection of metamorp hic viruses that know antivirus loopholes can be difficult to detect by static and dynamic techniques of anomaly detection and thus new approaches are required to be explored(Daoud, Jebril, Zaqaibeh, 2008). Encryption Technology Encryption is used for securing data that is in transit and to be able to use encryption on data; appropriate cryptographic keys have to be created, signed, secured and configured. In case of IPSec and TLS, appropriate private keys are also generated, and if SSH is used then server and client keys are created. Security Maintenance Security establishment is the first step but it is not sufficient to keep operating system secure in the long run for which security is also required to be maintained for the system for which certain mechanism may be used such as monitoring and analysis of logging information, regular backups, security recovery, security system testing, and use of maintenance through patches and updates for monitoring and revision of configuration. Process Homeostasis Modern computer systems face several challenges including data loss, server hacking, system crashes and so on. Most of these issues result from the abnormal behavior of systems or program. Homeostasis is a technique used by Linux 2.2 kernel that can be used for detection of unusual behavior of a program through the study of short sequences of system calls. Unusual behavior can be in the form of system slow down and delays. Unusual program behavior can lead to set of symptoms such as data corruption, security isolation, crashes, but there are no inbuilt in mechanisms in an operating system that can respond to such anomalies and thus, for this a system called pH or Process Homeostasis based on the structure of biological system have been tested. There is a rise in complexities with increasing data shared through internet and network connections leading to additional and new security issues making systems vulnerable to crashes. Unlike an isolated system, a networked system cannot remain consistent over time but changes frequently. Thus, monitoring and keeping track of activities happening in an operating system that is connected to the network can be crucial for understanding and identifying vulnerabilities and attacks. In such cases, a program is used for identifying legal behavior as well as unusual events that result into issues such as communication failures and invalidation of data with rarely used codes getting executed. In this approach, detectors are developed for recognizing explicit behavior or a program through data streams scanning such that attack signatures can be identified. However, this approach also has its limitations as it is difficult to identify all types of behavior when a program can malfunction. Also, such programs are required to be regularly upgraded to be able to detect new anomalies. Detection and learning of unusual and normal program behavior can enhance the security of an operating system. In homeostasis, several types of detectors and effectors are used for creating a stable environment of an operating system. Conclusion The paper discussed various security and control measures that could be used for attaining and maintaining security for an operating system. It was found that to have an efficient security system; a proper security planning process can be used beginning with operating system hardening which involves upgrading of system and installation of patches followed by installation of additional security measures such as firewall systems, intrusion detection, and anti-virus applications. Moreover, some innovative and new techniques like homeostasis can also be used for prevention of attacks on operating systems. The choice of appropriate method would not be possible without the study of actual system and the content that needs to be protected as well as the programs or applications that would be run on the system. References Australian Government. (2012). Top four mitigation strategies to protect your ICT system. Australian Government. Bosworth, S. and Kabay, M. (2002).Computer security handbook. New York: John Wiley Sons. (2015). Security and Operating Systems. Columbia: CS. Daoud, E. A., Jebril, I. H., Zaqaibeh, B. (2008). Computer Virus Strategies and Detection Methods. Int. J. Open Problems Compt. Math , 29-36. Finzel, T. (1992). Trends in Operating System Security.Information Systems Security, 1(1), pp.50-57. Franklin, I. (2001). Securing the Operating System.Network Security, 2001(5), pp.12-13. Franklin, I. (2001). Securing the Operating System.Network Security, 2001(5), pp.12-13. Hopkins, P. (2015). Operating System Security.Engineering Technology Reference. Irtegov, D. (2003).Operating system fundamentals. Hingham, Mass.: Charles River Media. Ning, P., Xu, D. (2003). Learning Attack Strategies from Intrusion Alerts. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University. Post, G. (1987). Improving operating system security.Computers Security, 6(5), pp.417-425. Silberschatz, A., Galvin, P. and Gagne, G. (2005).Operating system concepts. Hoboken, NJ: J. Wiley Sons. Vacca, J. (2014).Network and system security. Amsterdam: Syngress. Yang, C.-Q. (2003). Global Information Assurance Certification Paper. SANS Institute.
Wednesday, March 25, 2020
The United States Constitution that was created on September 17, 1787, during the Constitution Convention was strongly a pro-slavery document. The framers of the constitution did not tackle clearly the issue of slavery and they were compelled to make a temporary compromise in order to unite the states in the country.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on History of Slavery Constitution in US specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although the framers of the document knew that there was a problem appertaining to allowing slavery to thrive, their hands were tied as they were concentrating on a bigger problem of forming a new united country. Thus, they were rather vague on the matter and did not deliberate upon it deeply. As a result, until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution, the 1787 constitution was pro slavery by both Ã¢â¬Ëintention and effect.Ã¢â¬â¢ In the 1787 U.S. Constituti on, there is no mention of the word slavery. However, in the eighty-four clauses of the legal document passed at the Constitutional Convention, six are in fact unswervingly related to the issue of slavery that was being practiced in the United States during the eighteenth century. In addition, five others had inferences to slavery that were discussed during the historic Constitutional Convention. The heart of the supporting nature of the 1787 U.S. Constitution in regards to slavery is found Article 1, Section 2, Paragraph 3. It states Ã¢â¬Å"representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other PersonsÃ¢â¬ (Gales and Seaton, 1310). Intentionally, the framers of the constitution ignored the pern icious Ã¢â¬Å"SÃ¢â¬ word in this clause. Consequently, this gave the slaveholding states a reason to rejoice as their power and influence would be enhanced according to the increase in number of slaves they owned. This was the situation since the clause was concerned with the number of representatives elected to congress; that is, if two states had the same number of free persons but one had slaves, then the state with slaves would inevitably get more representatives and thus more political power. Since the slaveholding states were given more political power based on the number of slaves they had, this gave them the incentive to enslave more people.Advertising Looking for term paper on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Article I section 9 propagated the business of trading in slaves. This is because it denied Congress the power to stop the business for twenty years from the time it was passed into law. It states, Ã¢â ¬Å"The migration or importation of such persons as any of the states now existing shall think proper to admit shall not be prohibited by the congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty maybe imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each personÃ¢â¬ (Gales and Seaton, 1310). The word person(s) in the clause is used in reference to the slaves who were taken from different parts of the world into the United States. Article IV works in association with the idea of depriving Congress the power to stop slave trade by providing the rare protection of making the amendment of the idea a near impossibility. In SlaveryÃ¢â¬â¢s Constitution, historian David Waldstreicher argues that the Constitutional Convention of 1787 accommodated the practice of slavery in the U.S. Waldstreicher gives an analysis on how the makers of the Constitution debated, bargained, and wrestled over the issue of slavery at the Constitutional Convention. He not es that their efforts to reach a compromise on the issue gave rise to two different aspects of the politics of slavery that were intended to perpetuate it (Waldstreicher, 1). These are slavery as a type of authority over some particular individuals and as an economic institution. In reference to the famous three-fifths clause, Waldstreicher maintains that Ã¢â¬Å"all the other personsÃ¢â¬ in the phrase refers to slaves and this allotment was meant to increase the influence of the slave-owners. To further support that the Constitutional Convention accommodated slavery, he observes that the debate to pass the legal document with the clauses supporting slavery was not condemned by the delegates from the Deep South. He adds that the lack of discussions on the issue in some states, such as North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, were an effort to accommodate the Constitution. These states seemed satisfied with the insufficiency pro-slavery Constitution that the Convention had formu lated. During the making of the Constitution, there was divided opinion between the supporters and opponents on the issue of slavery. As aforementioned, based on the three-fifths compromise, the supporters of slavery wanted to maintain their power and influence in the country because they could send more representatives to Congress and fail to remit direct taxes as desired. In addition, the slaveholders were looking at slaves as the biggest factor of production. They offered free labor and the people who had huge plantations greatly reduced their cost of production. Because of the Ã¢â¬ËbenefitsÃ¢â¬â¢ that the slaves provided, the delegates of the Convention never wanted to regulate slavery.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on History of Slavery Constitution in US specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand, the opponents of slavery argued that one of the principles that led to the establishment of th e United States of America was the notion that Ã¢â¬Å"All men were created equalÃ¢â¬ ; thus, the sanctioning of slavery was hypocritical. Furthermore, they argued that the representation of African Americans as Ã¢â¬Å"three-fifthsÃ¢â¬â¢ of a person was demeaning to their human condition as everyone is united by the common fabric of humanity. The supporters of Article 1, Section 2, Paragraph 3 argued that the clause is anti-slavery as it gives the states with slaves the opportunity to send more representatives in Congress as compared to the states without slaves. However, the opponents of the clause maintained that slaves were not allowed to vote; thus, the congressional representatives could not represent their interests as they were regarded to be just a form of Ã¢â¬Å"chattelÃ¢â¬ or property without basic freedoms. James Madison viewed slavery as a Ã¢â¬Ënecessary evilÃ¢â¬â¢ that needed to be eradicated from the United States. In his writings in the Federalist Papers, he enshrined the notion of the Bill of Rights that would accord all the slaves in the country their rights to be treated humanely. As one of the leading delegates of the Convention, he argued that it would not be right to state plainly in the Constitution the Ã¢â¬Å"idea that there could be property in menÃ¢â¬ ; consequently, the words Ã¢â¬Å"slaveÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"slaveryÃ¢â¬ did not appear there. The pernicious words were replaced with euphemistic terminology in the sections of the Constitution that were tackling the issue of the slavery system. In the Federalist papers he authored, Madison explained that the institution of slavery was wrong and regrettable as it oppressed innocent victims, undermined the moral integrity of the slaves, bred contempt for honest labor, and encouraged idle masters to indulge in their worst passions so as to practice tyranny. Madison particularly tackles the issue in Federalist Paper No. 38 in which he says: Ã¢â¬Å"The existing Congress, without a ny such control, can make treaties which they themselves have declared, and most of the States have recognized, to be the supreme law of the land. Is the importation of slaves permitted by the new Constitution for twenty years? By the old it is permitted foreverÃ¢â¬ (Madison, para.9). On the other hand, Waldstreicher attacked the views of Madison concerning slavery because he demonstrated mixed opinion on the issue. Waldstreicher points out that like most of the southern delegates to the Convention, Madison was a slaveholder; thus, his views on what was referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"peculiar institutionÃ¢â¬ of slavery were deeply conflicting. As much as deep down he knew that the practice was evil, Madison did not see how the economy of the South could grow without the much-needed labor from the slaves.Advertising Looking for term paper on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Waldstreicher points out that Madison could not envision how whites and blacks could possibly live together; therefore, he proposed for the establishment of a different black settlement in a different place from the U.S. Nonetheless, despite their differences on the issue of slavery, Waldstreicher and Madison wanted slavery to be abolished completely from the U.S. Worth mentioning in this perspective, Madison proposed for the adoption of the Bill of Rights that eventually led to the abolition of slavery. In conclusion, it is evident that the 1787 Constitution was proslavery. On drafting the document, the delegates had the opportunity to put an end to the practice of slavery and accord the blacks full citizenship under the new Constitution. However, the delegates threw cards on the table and compromised to protect the slaveholders. Thus, for about twenty years, the blacks were denied their rights as they were supposed to provide free labor for the growth of the economy of the young n ation. Works Cited Gales, Joseph, and Seaton, William W. Register for debated in congress,Ã¢â¬ ¦. Washington: United States Congress, 1825-37. Print. Madison, James. Ã¢â¬Å"The Federalist Papers No.38.Ã¢â¬ US Government Info. The New York Times Company, 2011. Web. Waldstreicher, David. SlaveryÃ¢â¬â¢s Constitution: From Revolution to Ratification. New York: Hill and Wang; 2009. Print. This term paper on History of Slavery Constitution in US was written and submitted by user Maria Y. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Klinefelter Syndrome essays Doctor Harry Klinefelter and other men that he worked with discovered Klinefelter Syndrome. They published an article about nine men that they saw at a Massachusetts General Hospital who were unlike the men you could see normally on the street. This genetic disorder was of special interest to myself after watching a 20/20Ã¢â ¢ program a few years back that discussed the life of an individual that suffered from Klinefelter Syndrome. Before watching that specific show Klinefelter Syndrome never occurred to me to exist. Now given the opportunity to research a genetic disorder, this one definitely jumped out. Klinefelter Syndrome can happen when a child is born with the genotype of XXY instead of XY. Since the child is born with an extra chromosome that determines its gender the chromosome that is affected it the 23rd one. The normal genotype for a female is XX while the normal genotype for a male is XY. Since the individual still has a Y chromosome they are still technically male, but with a hormonal imbalance. About one out of every 500 to 800 males is born with the disorder and approximately 3% of the infertile male population has the syndrome. [pg. 637 GALE] Individuals with Klinefelter Syndrome usually experience social and/or school learning problems, sterility, small breast development and incomplete masculine body build. Testosterone treatment ideally occurs when the male enters puberty. This treatment helps by increasing muscle size and promoting facial hair growth, however it does not help produce sperm and infertility cannot be fixed. There is also a psychological change as the individual can begin to be more self-confident [NICHD]. There are many benefits to this treatment including a decreased need for sleep and a better handle on concentration. Gene therapy is not an option as a treatment for this genetic disorder and there is no cure. Testosterone treatment can help, but it cannot fully ch ...
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Rubric for nursing Theorist Teaching project - Essay Example Kolcaba defines several levels of comfort that appear for patients over time. She defines three forms of comfort and four contexts where patients will find comfort. The three levels she defines are Ã¢â¬Å"relief, ease and transcendenceÃ¢â¬ (March &McCormack, 2009, p. 76-77). The first level of comfort, relief, happens when a patient is provided with what they need when they are in pain. The patient will move to the ease level when they find out that not only are they having relief from pain, but this relief is continuing over time because of the way that they have relieved the pain. The patient will move to the transcendence phase, when they are able to move past the challenges they have and life a fulfilling life (Kolcaba, 2011). Kolcaba saw that these phases were appearing in much of the literature she was reading on the subject and she began to formulate her theory. When developing a theory, it is important to know what has come before the theory that one hopes to present (March &McCormack, 2009). Kolcaba began to write about the three levels of comfort that she had identified and realized that there was an important messages to nurses about these stages. As an example, nurses are supposed to be the ones who provide comfort for the patients in a holistic way; her theory looks at the patient in a holistic way by providing comfort on the physical, emotional and psychosocial levels. Her theory recognizes that each individual has their own need for comfort and there are many different interventions that are needed in these situations (Kolcaba and Kolcaba, 1991). According to Kolcaba (2011) there are four dimensions to the theory. The first dimension describes nursing as the process of interviewing the client about their comfort needs. In this phase, the patient is provided with interventions and then the nurses check the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s comfort level on a regular basis. The second dimension defines the optimal health of the