Monday, September 30, 2019
The word Debutante, or Deb, in French, is a word which means a young lady is introduced to the Society. In the Philippines, a Debutante's Ball is very popular, a milestone event and widely celebrated when a young Filipina teenager reaches the age of 18. Normally, a grand party is hosted by the family with huge budget sometimes more expensive than a wedding.One of the traditions and usually the highlight of the Debutante's Ball is the Grand Cotillion Waltz where the Debutante, her Escort and their Court (9 Pairs) will perform a highly -choreographed dance.Part of the tradition is where the Dad takes the 1st dance of the night, usually a waltz dance. A typical practice too is that this dance is a part of the 18 Roses dance.It's when 18 pre-selected men starting with the Debutante's Father will present her with 18 roses as they dance to a very special song. Usually the Debutante picks the dancers, which includes family members, friends, classmate, neighbors, cousin, brothers, her Father and sometimes the boyfriend.Absolutely a must do in a Debutante's Ball, the 18 Candles is when 18 women, beginning with the Debutante's Mother, each present the Debutante a lighted candle symbolizing one year of the Debutante's life. As the candles are presented, the participants often say a word of encouragement and/or birthday wishes.A relatively new practice, where 18 pre-selected guests presents the Debutante a gift that the Debutante shall treasure as she journey into womanhood. Each participant typically announces what is the gift all about and the reason/s why she or he chose that particular gift.We will not miss when the Debutante, after the guests sing together a birthday song, takes the center stage and cut the beautiful and elegant cake then one by one blow all the 18 candles.Also a part of the celebration is when the Debutante, getting ready to party, changed outfit and take the center stage to thank all those who is responsible for putting this party together, as well appreciating the presence of the all the guests. Normally, dancing starts after the Debutante's speech.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
In the late nineteenth century the methods of policing were still in their infancy. There was not the technology and experience of crime we have today. Because of the under developed methods there was a lot of petty theft, murder and robbery was common. Riots broke quite often; they usually ended up with injuries and distrust towards the police and army. Law and order up keeping was not organised well enough so it had little effect on the crime. There were too few police to arrest enough criminals. Prostitution was the most common was that poor woman made a living for them and their families in bad times. In the area of Whitechapel there were roughly 8000 prostitutes working in 1888. The east end was on of the poorest communities and London the richest square mile right next to poverty. The Metropolitan police force was set up to keep order and deter crime in London as well as tackle major disturbances, e.g. riots. They were set up to take over the function of the watchmen and constables. When the police force had to deal with large riots or protest there was frequent deaths as the army backed up the police. When dealing wit riots or protest the police often launched a baton charge on the crowd, however public complained that the police didn't follow orders and used violence all too often. The police were armed with only a truncheon. Later the inspectors began to carry revolvers at times. The police force dealt with street crimes, as that happened the number of burglaries went up. A detective department was set. This lead to corruption and 3 out of 4 policemen were found guilty of corruption. Two years later big improvements were made. As the number of detectives went up and the number of arrests the amount of corruption went down. The methods were basic, value of footprints and following suspicious characters. Detective work progressed slowly; however many arrests were made and crimes solved with detective work. They used such methods as measuring parts of the human body believing that no two humans would have the same measurements, matching materials discovered and fingerprinting. These methods of detective work weren't very effective. They were too underdeveloped to help the police force investigate crimes well. The significance of evidence was not known. Crime still thrived in the streets in London. The amount of police in London at the time was 13,319 but at any one time only 1,383 were available, while the population was 5,255,069. Not enough police meant that too many crimes were being committed still. Slowly however improvements were being made. Question 2 Why did the Whitechapel murders attract so much attention in 1888? The Whitechapel murders attracted a lot of attention because they were the first serial, sexual murders. The short time between the 5 murders was only 2 months and a week, 70 days. The types of murders, press reports, mystery and injuries also attracted attention to the murders. The Rippers' victims were all working prostitutes. Prostitutes were just people he picked at random; he didn't plan to kill that specific person. Prostitutes were seen as the lowest of people by the upper and middle classes. The murders thrilled the upper classes and gave them something to talk about. The injuries he caused to the bodies were a big reason why the murders attracted so much attention. All the victims died instantly from a deep slit across their neck from left to right. The injuries were mainly abdominal; they became increasingly more horrific as the murders went on. The murders were extremely bloody, disturbing and moving. Organs such as the uterus, intestines and kidneys were removed. In the last, most horrific murder the heart was missing, it was never found. Elizabeth Stride and Catherine Eddowes were both murdered on the same night. Their bodies were found less than a quarter of a mile away from each other; and murdered in less than an hour. The body of Elizabeth Stride was not mutilated, so the Ripper obviously hadn't had enough time to finish. However the body of the other woman was badly mutilated. She had all the stabs and mutilations as the other victims; but she also had multiple cuts on her face; right earlobe was sliced off and V's cut on her cheeks. The press also over exaggerated about the injuries to the bodies. The press had said that the injuries were more horrific than they really were; and in each report small details were added to keep the public interested. The name Ã¢â¬ËJack the Ripper' was a catchy name that would draw attention to the article; it turned him into a celebrity. The murders become a sensation after the name was put forward. Press reports contained information like suspects, injuries and stories from witnesses. The press turned it into stories that lead the public to buy more newspapers or magazines; it was a series that people just had to find out the ending to. The murders attracted attention to the area of Whitechapel, the bad conditions and lives. It was a very widely publicized and talked about event. It drew curiosity and interest to the homes of people everywhere. What happened in those few weeks was very new to crime. Question 3 Why were the police unable to catch Jack the Ripper? There were many factors about why the police were unable to catch the Ripper. He was the first sexual serial killer. He only focused on murdering prostitutes. He was an opportunist murder. It was common and normal to see men and women go into dark corners and it didn't look suspicious. This made it hard for the police because he didn't follow a pattern or he didn't have any connections between the people he murdered; it was completely at random. The police didn't know how to deal with this situation, as it was the first of its kind. The police couldn't establish anything in particular. The bodies were moved around a lot before they were taken to the mortuary so evidence was destroyed. There were two main police forces at work at the time of the murders. They were competing against each other for the capture of the Ripper. The Metropolitan police and City Police were heavily guarding information from each other in competition to catch the Ripper and get more publicity. If the two police forces had joined information it would have helped them to capture him before anymore murders took place. Because of this they limited the chances of catching the serial murderer. During the few weeks of the murders there were too many other murders. There were approximately 82 other murders at the same time. It was hard to distinguish who was the murderer for each of the murders. The press interfered with the investigation; by publishing information about the investigation that the police had gathered. This could give Ã¢â¬Ëtips' to the murder to stay ahead of the investigation and make advances. The murderer could have been anyone. He could been any normal person who lived in the middle class areas in London who only came on the weekends after his work for a little fun. Or he could have been a street dweller. It could have been an immigrant. This hindered the investigation because it wasn't certain exactly who it could be clues lead to it potentially being either. There were many homeless street dwellers in Whitechapel so it was common for people to be out on the streets late in the night. It could have been anyone who was sleeping on the streets at the time. Or could have come from London for the weekend. Also different detectives had different points of views of the killer. Most said that he was a professional medic on human anatomy but one or two argued that he hadn't even the skill of a butcher. Despite that today we have methods such as physiological profiling, which makes it slightly easier to catch serial killers however it's still hard. In 1888 there was no such thing; so they could not focus on specific suspects easily and was ever harder for them. There was also a lot of racial argument at the time; figures were being pointed at the foreigners mostly. The skills that investigation used was very basic like the significance of footprints and fingerprints. They believed in old wives tales such as the last image a person sees is preserved on their retina. The police might not have ever caught the Ripper. Many arrests were made and theories were thought of. The press interfered greatly with the investigation. They drove it for the police basically. Also the low experience of the police in serial killers hindered the chances of capturing him. Catching serial killers is still very difficult despite all out technology, so with none of what we take for granted today; it probably slowed down his capture even more.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Explain how Machiavelli's discussion of virtue (virtu) in The Prince differs from that of the ancients like Plato and Cicero. Give examples - Essay Example It is immoral and unethical, maintains Plato, for a ruler to rule solely by might. Machiavelli has stated, ""A Prince, therefore should have no care or thought but for war, and the regulations and training it requires, and should apply himself exclusively to this as his peculiar province; for war is the sole art looked for in one who rules" (Machiavelli, P. 70)." Therefore, it is clear that Machiavelli's idea of virtu' is not one that is based on moral character, but rather, based on utility. For Machiavelli, virtu' outweighs morality when the needs of the situation demands it; for Plato, one must preserve morality at all times. Plato believes in utopian ideals and propositions; Machiavelli, was a realist. Cicero, on the other hand, maintains that there was no distinction between that which was morally good and what was useful to man. His concept of duty is directly opposite the concept of duty as forwarded by Machiavelli. Cicero believed that pleasure may be enjoyed by man, but that there is a right and moral way to enjoy pleasure. For example, sex is an enjoyable activity and may thus be engaged in by man, but it is wrong to have sex with another man's wife. To quote from Cicero, "Virtue is a habit of the mind, consistent with nature and moderation and reason." Even their concepts of government are markedly different. Machiavelli would be wont to argue for the top-down approach, i.e., a good ruler is essential, a ruler who must be feared, more than loved. Cicero, on the other hand, believes that people should work together for the betterment of the community. Hence, he espouses a bottom-top approach. Describe the role of virtue in friendship, according to Cicero. Cicero's work, "De Amicitia" (On Friendship) captures this thinker's thoughts on friendship, and particularly, the role that virtue plays. A very enlightening passage in this work, translated in English, reads: "I can only advise you to prefer friendship to all things else within human attainment, insomuch as nothing beside is so well fitted to nature, -- so well adapted to our needs whether in prosperous or in adverse circumstances. But I consider this as a first principle -- that friendship can exist only between good men." Much ado is made regarding the moral dimension of friendship - that it should be based on nature, and not on need, on love and not on benefit. To quote the good philosopher once again, "But in friendship there is nothing feigned, nothing pretended, and whatever there is in it is both genuine and spontaneous. Friendship, therefore, springs from nature rather than from need, -- from an inclination of the mind with a certain consciousness of love rather than from calculation of the benefit to be derived from it." Hence, Cicero believes that truth-telling is an important aspect of friendship, and that the truth must be told to a friend, even though the truth hurts. But perhaps the most important point made by Cicero is that virtue is the very framework of friendship, it is the very bulwark on which friendship rests - Virtue, I say to you, Caius Fannius, and to you, Quintus Mucius, -- virtue both forms and preserves friendships. In it is mutual agreement; in it is stability; in it is consistency of conduct and character. When it has put itself forth and
Friday, September 27, 2019
Differentiating for Learning Profile - Essay Example Also, other ways include verbalizing the content, creating logical understanding, kinesthetic understanding, interpersonal understanding, intrapersonal understanding and, finally, naturalizing the content (Mulligan, 2005). These are just some of the broad ways students can be grouped in classes. With regards to students who understand the content through creating rhythms, educators should encourage them to sing what they are taught or create a beat about the content (Mulligan, 2005). Also, creating cheers, jingles and humming sounds will enable a student to remember what he or she was taught. Students who understand what they are taught through verbalizing the content could be encouraged to read it, spell the content, write it and listen to content. Students who, on the other hand, understand the content through visualizing it should be offered graphic organizers, color codes, videos or charts in order to understand the content fully. Students who kinesthetically understand things sh ould be encouraged to role-play the content (Mulligan, 2005). This is through assuming that the student is, in fact, the content being discussed. Finally, a student who understands the content through naturalizing it should label the content. They should also categorize the content and identify it (Mulligan, 2005). ... Others speak English as a second language while some may be talented and gifted. Still others might struggle with mental, physical, emotional or behavioral challenges. It is, therefore, vital to plan a classroom that can incorporate all these types of students (Rose & Meyer, 2006). In order for educators to create a classroom that incorporates all types of students, it is essential for them to use interactive whiteboards in their classrooms. Interactive whiteboards are specially designed to engage a broad variety of learners in the learning process. Interactive whiteboards support all of the three principles and philosophies of universal learning (Rose & Meyer, 2006). Interactive whiteboards offer teachers or educators numerous ways of presenting information, to their students, using interactive images, text, video files and sound and, hence, engage a wide range of learners. Students or learners can use the same elements of the product to reveal their understanding of the content. To uch-sensitive boards particularly offer numerous options for interacting with displayed content, including finger, pen tool and other object (Rose & Meyer, 2006). Furthermore, interactive whiteboards captivate students of the digital age. This is because interactive whiteboards increase a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s time and access to digital resources. This technique ensures that students, no matter the duration of the lesson, understand everything that is taught. This is because it offers all the techniques that diverse students use in understanding (Rose & Meyer, 2006). Furthermore, interactive whiteboards will assist students understand matters even better as it used all the techniques of teaching. Question 3 Educators recognize
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Challenges of ERP adoptions and critical success factors - Essay Example ber of factors such as enhancing the ability so as to compete on the global platform, excessive pressure from increased competition so as to become the low cost producer and increasing expectations in terms of revenue growth. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s scenario of implementation as well as management of enterprise resource planning the most important aspect is that of critical success factors or CSF. There lies a strong correlation between the challenges or issues that are witnessed with the adoption of ERP technology with these critical success factors. The critical success factors can be stated as exemplars that enable the process improvement boundaries to be extended and even can be considered to be valuable if it is taken into consideration in each of the stages of the overall implementation process. The adoption of ERP into the system is dependent upon various critical success factors that are grouped into two major parts that are strategic and tactical factor. The support from the top management is very essential when the issue about the implementation of ERP system is taken into account. In any organization the rules and regulation are set forth by the top management of the system and the software adoption as well as execution is majorly dependent on the extended support that is provided by the top management. The critical success factors that are strategic by nature is related to the mission of the project, support given by the top management and in case of project scheduling it can be associated with outlining various actio n steps for individual in order to implement the project (Ziemba & ObÃ âÃâ¦k, 2013, pp. 4-9). The tactical issues are needed to be considered when the next phase of project implementation takes place that is related to communicating with different users, adopting the necessary technology so as to support the system and hiring of business and technical professionals who would carry forward the implementation process. The critical success factors of ERP
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Business and Globalisation - Essay Example A third reason is the arrival of the information age, with computers and the internet which means that people and businesses can receive instant news about developments all across the world. New links, for example between raw material suppliers, manufacturers and markets for finished products can be spotted, created and managed very easily. Some people think that it is a very positive phenomenon, for example Dehasa (2006) who believes that this increased circulation of goods across the world will be a win-win situation, and that everyone will make money from it. Others see that there are also disadvantages, for example Steglitz (2002) who points out that when a small business, or a community which depends on one or two main products comes into a much bigger market, then it has very little control over what happens in that market. In countries like Colombia, for example, with its dependence on coffee production through the first half of the twentieth century, exporting their goods was a great benefit for a while, so long as the price of coffee was high and people in other countries wanted to buy it. There are problems, however, when for example competition grows and the price drops, or when major buyers get involved in war, for example, and the demand is suddenly no longer there. This kind of event can be absorbed in a bigger and more diverse business field, but it can be devastating to smaller or tightly focused business areas. There is also a significant inequality between developed countries, who often set the quality standards and the prices, and less developed countries, who have very little choice in the deals that are set up. A further dimension of globalisation is the effect that it has on the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s resources, and this includes both materials for production, and the environment in which these materials are produced. Some resources, like the hardwood forests of the Amazon, are limited in size and the destruction of rainforests may bring short ter m gains for businesses, both in South America and in the countries where their trading partners are, but there will be longer term effects which are potentially serious for the whole world. When business is international, crossing national boundaries and involving transnational organisations and multi-national companies, then it is often hard to see who should be responsible for the effect on the planet. Many companies have good ethical policies which prevent extreme damage from occurring, but there are also many others which exploit scarce resources with no thought for the consequences on the earth, or on local people. One of the ways that these issues can be addressed is to combine globalisation with sustainable development. This can work with renewable resources like wood, but it is not a solution for finite resources like oil and some rare minerals and metals. If a business wants to take advantage of globalisation, then it must make very careful preparations before launching int o a big venture. People use terms like Ã¢â¬Å"the global villageÃ¢â¬ to refer to the way that the world is increasingly connected, but very often there are huge cultural differences that make true communication very difficult (Brysk, 2000). A good example of this is the
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Finding God Seeking the Truth - Personal Statement Example Let me elaborate my understandings by touching on the point that God wanted to establish personal relations with his special creation, the humans. The Genesis clearly manifests how a loving God created all things. But whether the detail of such creation is clearly portrayed or not in the texts doesn't matter. What matters is the reason why man was created in His likeness. He made us special because he needed a special bond with the works of His hands and this could be achieved through following His well, to obey Him, and live forever with Him. But sin had changed all these. Nevertheless, in spite of the sins of Adam, he gave him a chance because he didn't want this bond to be broken. Regardless of the sinfulness of all the people in Noah's time God redeemed his family from the great flood, because God needed to preserve the connection. He called Abraham from among the rest of the people to establish an intimate attachment with God and human. When Sodom and Gomorrah was rained with fi re he saved Lot again to preserve the link. Yet now, upon pondering this important truth I have found, it's never too late for everyone to have a special relationship with God. I realized and I am convinced that no amount of religion can reinforce such personal relationship with God but we ourselves alone. How then can we show that God is reigning in us The second apprehension I have mentioned is respect for oneself which is one of the signs I realized than can prove it. God created our body as a temple of the Spirit he gave us. I had been taught from my Catholic teachings that humans have the breath of life, the soul that instituted the direct bond to our God. I held on to this conviction and continue to understand that a part of us is immortal and would come out at the right time laid in our fate by God. The body served as the temple of the soul that needs to be nurtured. A clean body would mean a clean soul. I recalled that time when I usually recharge myself in the quiet and calm place where I can make connection with nature. Oh, what a refreshing experience it was when you sense the spirit of God hovering in nature making connection with your inner soul! But meditation is just one expression in our struggle to respect our own body. Respect for self requires both physical and spiritual nurturing. Doing away with sinful acts that ruin not only the flesh but also the soul is one way. Immoral sex, alcoholism, and other forms of wicked acts corrupt the body and weaken the bond with God. The values taught in the Kabbalah are essential ideals and guidance to make the flesh clean. Following the teaching of good values and the way to righteousness is the ultimate show of deference for oneself. The ultimate proof of a strong bond with God and respect for the self could be shown by how we deal with others. I considered this third point as strongly reinforced by the texts I have encountered. Our behaviors towards ourselves are less pronounced than our business with others. How we greet the persons next us, how we mingle wit our peers, how we act in public are greatly seen by others and are judged by them. Every individual have their own standards as far as judging other behaviors are concerned. A good attitude to one can be normal for others. A bad habit could even be worse in another's perspective. But most often the limitations of our actions are governed by human laws. There are absurd things that could be socially
Monday, September 23, 2019
Physiology and metabolism, cardiovascular system, MacMan computer simuklation - Essay Example Physiological homeostasis in the cardiovascular system is maintained depending on baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes. Baroreceptor reflexes respond to changes in blood pressure and chemoreceptor reflexes respond to changes in pH, which are usually caused by an increase or decrease in blood CO2 (Scanlon & Sanders, 2011). Question 1: What happens to the blood pressure and heart rate? The systolic blood pressure is increased to 132.8 mmHg and the diastolic pressure is increased to 82.2 mmHg. The heart rate is decreased to 51.8/min (table 1). When arterial resistance is increased, the vessels experience vasoconstriction, which leads to an increase in blood pressure and a decrease in heart rate. Changing the heart rate resulted into a change in the time of the systole and that of the cardiac relaxation. The alteration in the blood pressure and cardiac output displayed a plateau, but increased by a small margin. At low heart rates, the existence of pericardial constraints causes a limitation in the viscous pressure (Her, Mandy, & Bairamian, 2005). A decrease in the heart rate led to the redistribution of the thoracic compartment from the extracic hence causing a reduction in the blood pressure. Question 2: What might give rise to the altered arterial resistance in a natural situation? The result of altered arterial resistance is increased high blood pressure (hypertension). Systolic pressure ranging between 125 and 139 mmHg and diastolic pressure that range between 60 and 80 mmHg are often considered prehypertension. This can be caused by stress, smoking, and high level of salt consumption (Her, Mandy, & Bairamian, 2005).
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Evidence of a Glass Ceiling - Assignment Example It would send a very positive message throughout the organization and externally if the company affirmatively recruited a pool of candidates in which there is adequate representation by women and minorities. This does not mean that a woman must be selected if she is not most qualified, but rather than an effort must be made to bring in qualified female candidates. The next time there is an opening within the senior leadership, the employees at large should draft a petition demanding this kind of affirmative action. If women and minorities had access to equal pay and opportunities for advancement, everyone would benefit in some way primarily because it would be truly just. When people are treated differently because of their gender or skin color, it sets up a severely unethical system that ultimately harms everyone in an organization, and contributes to the harm of society at large. Even if white men currently earn more on average than women and minorities, they are not really benefiting, particularly since the expectation is not that their pay would be reduced, but rather that the pay of women and minorities be increased in order to achieve equality. Real justice ultimately benefits everyone, and so there are no stakeholders who would not benefit. I once attended a business lunch with clients from the Far East.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Sammy Case Essay Assignment Question: Base on what you have learned in this course, your textbook and any reference books that you may have read, what are the problems that the main character has? What possible solutions would you suggest (with theoretical support) to solve the problems? In referring to your own life, what have you learned from this scenario and how can you apply these into your life? 1. Introduction According to the case study of assignment, it seems to me that Sammy encountered great difficulties in a couple of problems on intrapersonal and interpersonal competencies, which keep weakening her family relationship as well as her way of living. In the following, there will be three sections for the above discussion. First, based on what I have learned in my course, I will attempt to illustrate out the most important problems that suffered by Sammy. The second part, some possible recommendations will be provided so as to help her building up a positive relationship with her parents as well as her siblings, peer fellow or elsewhere. At last, I would like to conclude with my personal sharing which is completely learned from this scenario. 2.Three General CharacterÃ¢â¬â¢s Problems 2.1Lost Of Self Obviously, Sammy is getting lost in herself. She mess up with her unexamined life and confused by the question of Ã¢â¬Å"Who am I?Ã¢â¬ from the inside out. She doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t realize herself clearly as she even doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know what she likes or dislikes. It determines that Sammy was incapable of knowing herself and seems have unclear goal in future. This would be the major reason drive her getting an unsatisfactory result in public examination. She has attempted to make choice just fulfilling what her parents want her to do; however, once situation getting worse, she have lost her own decision to determine what should do soon. She has no idea about her totality of thoughts and feelings with reference to herself as an object. (Rosenberg, 1979) 2.2Low Self-Esteem Besides, Sammy often keeps comparing herself with others by physical appearance, talent, popularity, etc. However, she harbored negative feelings about all her surrounding people. These comparisons could only diminish her uniqueness and further result to make her losing of confidence. It revealed that the value she placed on herself is quiet low. It seems to me that the four sources of self-esteem, (1) social interaction, (2) social information, (3) social comparison, and (4) self-observation (Baron, 1990) have been damaged and unplugged in her case. 2.3Communication Problem Last but not lease, there is a clear communication problem within SammyÃ¢â¬â¢s family. She seldom talks peacefully and sincerely with her parents. Having quarreled once, Sammy chose to avoid communicating with them which only weaken much more on their family relationships. 3.Three Possible Recommendations Here are 3 possible solutions for Sammy: 3.1Exploring Developmental Areas Firstly, Sammy ought to recognize more about herself. Human development researchers pay attention to four developmental areas of self, which are physical self, mental self, emotional self and social self (Hanna, Suggett, Radtke, 2007). And in which the mental self indicates the learning abilities, thought-processing patterns, as well as attitude and motivation are facets of this important area of the self. So, Sammy needs to be strengthened on her mental self mostly, which can help her to establish her thought-processing patterns, beliefs etc. Reading books is a favorite way to improve mentally (Hanna, Suggett, Radtke, 2007). By developing her sense of mental self, Sammy could acquire critical and creative thinking which could encourage her to think matter deeply, dig out multi-level ideas, challenge assumptions, and examine the logic of differing points; hence, she can explore herself more specific and capable of differentiating between her ideal self, actual self, and ought self (Edward Tory Higgins, 1987). Having developed a creative thinking, Sammy could think about ideas in different ways and generate variety of possible solutions to any problems. These two kind of thinking ability will create more curiosity which turn to activate Sammy think much and examine othersÃ¢â¬â¢ opinion rather just followed to do so. 3.2Discovering Self-Concept And Self Valuing Corresponding to the 2.2 problem of Sammy, i.e. low self-esteem, she ought to discover her self-concept indeed. The self-concept is the totality of her thoughts and feelings with reference to herself and is the foundation on which almost all her actions are based (Rosenberg, 1979), consisting (1) self-descriptions, (2) ideal self, and (3) self-esteem or self-worth. We can observed Sammy was keeping compared herself with others, which reflects her unsatisfactory on her actual self; nevertheless, maybe her ideal self is quite close to perfect, that makes her never accept her actual self and lower her self-esteem, and one of the areas which mostly affects is academic achievement. Studies have found a significant positive correlation between self-esteem and Grade Point Average (Baker, Beer, Beer, 1991, cited in Hanna, Suggett, Radtke, 2007). So, thoughts changing should be adopted. Sammy should think more positive instead of keeping meaningless comparsion and pursuing the ideal self. Sh e should be encouraged to reveal her interest, or participate more social gathering rather than staying at home for aimless surfing. 3.3Disclosing Self On Criticism Actually, SammyÃ¢â¬â¢s parent has their own responsibilities, in which even delivering small quantities of criticism would be appreciated in a non-hurtful ways. However, my focus is on Sammy only; and so, I would suggest Sammy finding a positive way of communication. She needs to learn how to face criticism. Positive responses to criticism are important as it moves relationships in a positive direction. Ã¢â¬Å"The effective way to respond to criticism is to use an assertive style. It does not attack, surrender to, or sabotage the critic. It disarms the critic.Ã¢â¬ (McKay and Fanning, 2000) It is no use to response criticism emotionally. Sammy is encouraged to learn keeping a peaceful mind to receive any criticism. Rather than Shut herself up or lock the door, Sammy may try to express her different opinion to her parent but in calm. This self-disclosure helps knowing each others. Social penetration theory (Altman and Taylor, 1973) explains that close relationships develop in terms of increasing self-disclosure. Constructive criticism points out possibilities for improvement (Ginott, 1965). 4.Self Reflection In this case, I am found out the importance of self-knowing and self-valuing, and realize that an effective communication is really essential to build positive relationship. Not only communicate well on normal situation, but also we have to communicate healthy on criticism. In my case, my father is a kind of criticism-favor man, who loves to blame on everything since his 65 years old. Every time he shouted to us, just like Sammy, I quarreled with him first and shut up soon, or left his house, just let him alone . I though this is a smartest way to avoid meaningless argument with the old man. But the fact is he never stop quarrelling with me once I came back. Having studied this case, I started to ask my actual self: Ã¢â¬Å"Do I love my father?Ã¢â¬ The answer is Ã¢â¬Å"absolutely!Ã¢â¬ So, which drive me to think how to build a better relationship between us. Having known more about positive communication on criticism, one times, I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t run away, but listened to him peacefully. My old man shouted about half an hour, and finally stopped. Maybe he felt tired, and as I really listen carefully what he said, I tried to Ã¢â¬Å"communicateÃ¢â¬ my opinion with him peacefully and pointed out some my opinion about his arguments. Anyway, from that day on, we have less arguing, instead we talk more about the British Premier League.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Case Study of the Jewish Museum, Berlin The Jewish Museum Berlin incorporates the social and cultural history of the Germany after World War 2 and aspired to correspond to the effects of the Holocaust on Jews in Germany. In his design, Libeskind claimed to combine three main concepts; the incapability to comprehend the historical agendas of Germany without the knowledge of the civilizational, academic and economic contribution that was made by the Jewish people in Berlin. Secondly he wanted to capture the bodily and spiritual journey in correlation to the experience of the Holocaust and its repercussions the society of Jews and finally he wanted to make amends by the acknowledgment, removal and the incorporation of voids, through which Berlin can move but this time with humanitarian existence. When the construction ended in 1999, the Director Michael Blumenthal declared that, the chief aim of the museum will be to bring a sense of the richness of Jewish cultural life in Germany before the Holocaust LIBESKINDS BOOK However, the Holocaust infuses the museum so strongly the museum has been called by reviewers and critics both didactic and pedagogical that the message is one for the present and, more importantly, for the future (BOOK MAKE UP). Because the context of the Holocaust remains such a strong thread in this space, it warrants examination as a unique addition to genres memorializing the Holocaust. Additionally, the museums triumph in its massive turnout rates particularly with young people, over the last decade calls for an analysis of its complexity of design and content to understand how the space performs to change the way we see things.WHY HE WON? For Libeskind, who was worn in Poland, a coupl of hundred Kilemoters from Berlin and whose family devastated during the Holocaust, the project presented a chance to reconnect to his past. Both of his parents were arrested by Soviet officials when the Red Army and upon their return home and have spend some time in concentration camp. Upon their retur n they learned that 85 members of families had died at the hands of the Nazis. These experiences made Libeskind design extremely personal and in a sence biased. In an nterview to Jewish Currents, a Jewish on-line magazine that deals with activism, politics and art Libeskind explains his approach; I would first point out that its not a project that I had to research in a library or study in the archives because it is part of my background, including my immediate background in every sense. My parents were Holocaust survivors and my uncle Nathan was one of the heroes of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. I myself grew up as a Jew in post war Poland under quite anti-Semitic circumstances. And Ive lived in Israel and New York. Certainly that museum is speaking, both backwards and forwards, to many issues that are part of my Jewish sensibility. Jewish Currents Just by observing the form of the structure, already the sense of pragmatic effect is playing a large role. The building is recognisable by its gleaming zinc walls, asymmetrical shape of the zigzag form with daylight penetrating through asymmetric cuts suggestive of the vile stabs on Jewish presence in Germany. Berliners immediately dubbed it blitz or the lighting. For Libeskind this tormented form represents all the brutality, all the ruptures in the history of the Jews in Germany. This could b a case of Libeskinds over-collaboration with the structure, as this lighting, zig-zag this design of the structure is developed from the disjointed Star of David which is only noticable from the air an image only seen by an angel( BOOK BY DANILEl. The building, for example, proposes that the horrified, broken world of the Holocaust is best evoked by shatter, broken space. The entrance to the exhibition is by a descending lobby staircase that leads into a world twisted geometry where floors are off centre and twisted. And instead of feeling something philosophical, you almost anticipate platforms moving as in a luna parks house of terror. The basement of the museum is made of three axes representing three certainties in the history of Jews in Germany. The first is Axis of Continuity and it is the longest one. It joins the Old Building with the central stairway which escorts up to the exhibition levels. To Liberskind is a representation of continuation of Jews in Berlins history and culture. Second, Axis of Emigration guides visitors outside to sunshine of the Garden of Exile. here the walls are to some extent skewed and distorted. A gigantic door must be opened before one can step into the garden. There is not much information about history and once again Libeskind heavily relies on the architecture, our imagination and experiences to construct the history. dead end is at the Axis of the Holocaust which is even more narrower becomes and darker and finishes at the Holocaust Tower. Unlike in Axis of Emigration there is bit more information about the holocaust. On the way glass case, documents and other personal possessi ons are displayed, confirming of a private life of their owners who were murdered. Underground, all three axes traverse, representing the link between the three certainties of Jewish life in Germany. One aspect of the museum that had an effect on me are Libeskind`s so called Voids which symbolise the fundamental structural element of the New Building and its association with the Old Building. Here a staircase guides visitors down to the basement and all the way to the voids of exposed concrete which connects two buildings. These are indeed empty spaces, some of which you can peek into, and theyre supposed to symbolize the voids left by those Jews and Jewish communities that have been wiped out during the Holocaust. While this is certainly a very dark aspect of the buildings intend, it is rather an abstract one and again a pre-acquired knowledge had to exist in order to understand architects intentions. While observing the images of Voids the feeling of bareness, confusion and loss are strong and almost agonizing. Here, an installation by the Israeli sculptor, Menasche Kadishman of over 10,000 circular iron disc faces is spread along the concrete floor. It represents the suffering that could be seen on the faces of Jews murdered in Nazi Germany. Although these discs were left there intentionally as is usually not case with the punctum they are my prick. Ten thousand faces look at you from the cold concrete floor and their wide open mouth appears to be screaming. The fact that visitors are invited to wal k all over those faces seems as it somehow desecrates the installation. Maybe one of those faces was my grandfathers friend. In summation, the motive for the museum can influence the architectural form and become its source of inspiration. However, architecture could never have the specificity of meaning of written or verbal communication. The ways in which a building might thus express its newly anointed role in the framing of history seem partial, and burdened with pitfalls. I very often think that contemporary culture has more style over matter, and it could be argued that the Jewish Museum is a case in point. People expecting to leave building and gain a much better perspective of what life was like for the German Jewish population, will be disappointed, but if they are prepared to let their mind follow Daniel Libeskinds interpretation of events then they`ll leave distressed and puzzled . However, if come with certain acquaintances and their own experiences from the holocaust, they will notice their punctum and leave wounded and tormented.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"A man who cannot choose ceases to be a man.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âAnthony Burgess Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A Clockwork Orange is a novel about moral choice and free will. AlexÃ¢â¬â¢s story shows what happens when an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s right to choose is robbed for the good of society. The first and last chapters place Alex in more or less the same physical situation but his ability to exercise free will leads him to diametrically opposite choicesÃ¢â¬âgood versus evil. The phrase, Ã¢â¬Å"whatÃ¢â¬â¢s it going to be then, eh?,Ã¢â¬ echoes throughout the book; only at the end of the novel is the moral metamorphosis complete and Alex is finally able to answer the question, and by doing so affirms his freedom of choice. The capacity to choose freely is the attribute that distinguishes humans from robots; thus the possibility of true and heartfelt redemption remains open even to the most hardened criminal. A Clockwork Orange is a parable that reflects the Christian concept of sin followed by redemption. AlexÃ¢â¬â¢s final and free choice of the good, by leaving beh ind the violence he had embraced in his youth, brings him to a higher moral level than the forced docility of his conditioning, which severed his ability to choose and grow up. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The question, Ã¢â¬Å"whatÃ¢â¬â¢s it going to be then, eh,Ã¢â¬ is asked at the beginning of each section of the novel. In the first and third part it is asked by Alex, but in the second part it is asked by the prison chaplain. The answer does not come until the end of the novel when Alex grows up and exercises his ability to choose. He progresses to become a responsible and discriminating individual, escaping the clockwork that binds the rest of society. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A Clockwork Orange opens with Alex and his buddies outside the Korova Milkbar deciding what they were going to do for the evening. Alex acts on his impulses to do evil. He is driven by cause and effect relationships. When Alex wants something, he simply goes out and gets it. If he needs money, he steals it; if he wants to let out his aggression, he beats people up; if he wants sex, he rapes; if his Ã¢â¬ËdroogsÃ¢â¬â¢ do not listen to him, he teaches them a lesson. He feels no remorse when stealing, raping or murdering innocent victims. Man possesses potential for both good and evil. AlexÃ¢â¬â¢s decision cannot be blamed on any outside factor, it is simply something from within that drives him to lea... ...ion Ã¢â¬Å"whatÃ¢â¬â¢s it going to be then, eh,?Ã¢â¬ repeats throughout the novel and shows Alex as a different individual every time. It should be noted that the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s conditioning did nothing to change AlexÃ¢â¬â¢s mentality. Burgess portrayed Alex as an extremely evil character on purpose to show that each individual is in charge of his destiny. The character was still an emerging human being that had to go through a moral metamorphosis. Alex, the clockwork figure, was impelled towards evil but transformed into a useful member of society, on account of his free will to choose good. Bibliography 1.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"O My Brothers.Ã¢â¬ Davis, Todd F. & Womack, Kenneth. College Literature; Spring 2002. Vol 29. Issue 2. pg 18-19 2.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Bog or God.Ã¢â¬ Craig, Roger. ANQ Fall 2003. Vol 16. Issue 4. pg 51 3.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"A Clockwork Orange.Ã¢â¬ Wallich, Paul. IEEE Spectrum. July 2003. Vol 40. Issue 7. pg 42 4.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"A Clockwork Orange.Ã¢â¬ Ingersoll, Earl. Explicator. Fall 1986. Vol 45. Issue 1. pg 60 5.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"A Clockwork Orange.Ã¢â¬ Coleman, Julian. Explicator. Fall 1983 Vol 42. Issue 1. pg 62
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Amputation is a surgery to remove a limb or part of a limb. Amputation can also happen as an accident, which is called a traumatic amputation. Who is a candidate for the procedure? Amputation is most often used for one of four conditions: Ã · gangrene, which is a severe limb infection with death of tissue Ã · lack of enough blood flow through the arteries that supply blood and oxygen to the affected limb Ã · severe trauma or injury of a limb Ã · cancer or a tumor involving a limb Amputation has serious emotional and physical effects. For this reason, limb removal is usually advised only when other options are not possible or have little chance of success. How is the procedure performed? There are many different ways to perform an amputation. A single finger or toe may be removed, or an entire arm or leg. The surgeon will usually try to remove as little of the limb as needed to treat the condition. An amputation is done in an operating room. In many cases, general anesthesia is used to put the person completely to sleep with medications. Regional anesthesia may also be used. In this case, a person is awake but has no sensation of pain. The area of skin where the incision will be made is cleaned. The surgeon then cuts into and through the skin. In most cases, the surgeon will remove the limb or part of the limb at a point where there is a joint. For instance, the entire leg below the knee may be removed. The knee area is chosen partly because this is where the shinbone, or tibia, meets the thighbone, or femur. Removing the part or whole limb at a joint prevents the need to break one of the bones. After the part or whole limb is removed, the skin is closed with sutures. A bandage or dressing is then placed over it. What happens right after the procedure? The person is taken to a surgery recovery room while he or she wakes up from the surgery. Pain medication is given if needed. Antibiotics and other medications may also be given. When the person is awake and his or her vital signs are within normal limits, he or she is usually taken back to a bed in the surgical inpatient unit. In most cases, the person will need to stay in the hospital for at least 1 or 2 more days.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Crime and Punishment The main character of the novel Crime and Punishment by Feodor Dostoevsky, Raskolnikov, is in reality two totally contradicting personalities. One part of him is the intellectual. This part is cold and inhumane. It is this side that enables him to commit the most terrible crime imaginable - taking another human life. The other part of his personality is warm and compassionate. This is the side of him that does charitable acts and fights out against the evil in his society. This dichotomy of RaskolnikovÃ¢â¬â¢s personality can be clearly seen through the dream about the mare, as well as through other characters in the novel. Raskolnikov's dream about the mare can be used to probe deep into his mentality to discover how he really feels inside. The dream suggests that Raskolnikov is a "split" man; after all, his name in Russian means, "split". He has a cruel and thoughtless side as well as a caring, compassionate side to his personality. Through the dream and the symbols within, a reader can cast Raskolnikov, as well as other characters from Crime And Punishment, into any of the various parts in the dream. Each part that a character takes on leads to a different conclusion about that character. Raskolnikov himself "fits" into the positions of Mikolka, the child, and the mare. If Mikolka, the drunken owner of the mare, were to represent Raskolnikov, then the mare would most probably represent Alyona Ivanovna. The senseless beating of the mare by Mikolka is similar to the brutal attack on Alyona by Rodion. These heartless attacks foreshadow the crime that Raskolnikov is contemplating. Dostoevsky unveils Raskolnikov's cruel side during this dream, if it is to be interpreted in this way. Similarly, the little boy could represent RaskolnikovÃ¢â¬â¢s compassionate side. The child, watching the beating, realizes the absurdity of it. He even rushes to Mikolka, ready to punish him for killing the mare. This illustrates Rodion's internal struggle while contemplating the murder of Alyona. His humane side, the child, tells him to Ã¢â¬Ëlive and let liveÃ¢â¬â¢. And his "extraordinary" side, according to his definition, tells him that he should eliminate Alyona altogether, for the good of mankind. The flip side of this is that the mare itself could represent Raskolnikov. However, the burden which the mare must carry (the cart, the people, etc.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Traumatic hurt of the caput and encephalon has been a serious issue for world since the morning of civilisation. Even early Hagiographas in neurosurgery describe care of head hurt. The encephalon is a partly solid construction that weighs about 3 pounds and utilizes around 80 % of the organic structure Ã¢â¬Ës entire volume ingestion of O ( Heegaard ) . When external force is applied, an change in encephalon map may ensue. This change in encephalon map is referred to as traumatic encephalon hurt ( TBI ) ( Menon ) . TBI occurs most normally after a sudden blow or daze to the caput ( Spencer ) . There are 3 primary mechanisms of TBI hurt: blunt, penetrating, and blast ( Nolan ) . TBI may be mild, moderate or terrible. Badness is frequently first determined by an initial test that includes appraisal on the Glasgow Coma Scale, and appraisal of the cranial nervus physiological reactions, which includes an appraisal of student size and responsiveness of the students, corneal physiological reaction, and joke physiological reaction, and a motor scrutiny. An test is besides done to measure for coincident cervical spinal column hurt ( Callahan ) . More advanced appraisal techniques, such as CT and MRI are utilized to measure TBI abuses as hurt advancements. There are two categorizations of TBI: primary abuses and secondary abuses. The primary abuse occurs at the minute of impact. The secondary abuse consists of the complications that result from the primary abuse. For illustration, the primary abuse may dwell of the displacement in encephalon tissues that consequences from a blow to the caput ( Menon ) . The secondary abuse may so dwell of the gradual puffiness that occurs in the injured encephalon. While TBI may look stray and trauma confined to the caput, it is in fact a complex, chronic, and dynamic procedure that requires consistent attending as associated affected organic structure systems are managed ( Losiniecki, Masel ) . Additionally, TBI presents otherwise and must be treated otherwise in different populations. Neonates, kids, and geriatric populations present in different ways and must be treated otherwise in neurosurgical units for both mild and terrible TBI.EPIDEMIOLOGY AND ETIOLOGYTBI is the taking cause of morbidity and mortality after injury ( Berry et al, in Ough ) and nowadayss as the taking global cause of morbidity and mortality in persons under 45 old ages of age ( Werner ) . TBI represents more than half of the injury related deceases in the United States ( Menaker. However, mortality from TBI has improved significantly over the past 2 decennaries as a consequence of betterments made in neurosurgical attention, turning away of serious comorbidities that can happen inmate, and intercessions in the public safety sector ( DeCuypere ) . The estimated one-year incidence of TBI in the United States is about 1.7 million happenings, with about 506 instances per each 100,000 ; this estimation does n't take into consideration TBI sustained by patients evaluated at military infirmaries or Veterans personal businesss, or those who are undiagnosed because they choose non to seek intervention ( Ough ) . Disclosed happening of TBI is greater in developing states ; this is mostly been attributed to increased rates in motor vehicle hurts ( Corrigan et al, in Ough ) . In the United States, major hazard factors associated with TBI are age, gender, and quality of insurance. While the most common causes of TBI are falling, motor vehicle hits, being hit by an object, and assault, age makes a difference when it comes to prevalence of hurt. Across the board, the greatest subscriber to TBI hurts, exigency room visits, and hospitalizations in the U.S. is falling, with the most frequent hurts happening in those under 4 old ages of age or over 75 old ages of age ( Faul, in Ough ) . The greatest subscriber to TBI hurts in persons 15 to 24 old ages of age is centrifugal vehicle hits. Motor vehicle hits besides have the highest mortality rate associated with TBI ( Faul, in Ough ) . In the paediatric population, major causes of TBI vary by age. In babies, inflicted TBI is the major cause of TBI ( Keenan, in Ough ) . In yearlings, falling is the major subscriber to TBI ( Giza, in Ough ) . In older kids and striplings, motor vehicle hits are the chief cause of TB I ( Faul, in Ough ) . Gender besides affairs. Males are twice every bit likely to endure a TBI as were females ( Faul et al, in Ough ) Additionally, uninsured or publically insured patients were twice every bit likely to endure TBI when compared with in private insured patients. In the United States, of the 1.1 million persons who suffer TBI each twelvemonth and are evaluated in the exigency room, 50,000 dice. Children 14 old ages of age and younger history for more than 2,600 deceases, and kids between the ages of 0 Ã¢â¬â 4 and 15 Ã¢â¬â 19 have the highest per centum of visits to the exigency room as a consequence of TBI. Adults older than 75 old ages of age have the highest per centum of hospitalizations and decease as a consequence of TBI ( Menaker ) . Initial rating of badness of TBI is similar to the initial rating done on all trauma patients. The initial test includes appraisal on the Glasgow Coma Scale, and appraisal of the cranial nervus physiological reactions, which includes an appraisal of student size and responsiveness of the students, corneal physiological reaction, and joke physiological reaction, and a motor scrutiny. An test is besides done to measure for coincident cervical spinal column hurt ( Callahan ) . From at that place, practicians must be watchful for ever-evolving secondary abuses, hurts that may include hypotension, anaemia, hypercarbia, acapnia, hypotension, intracranial high blood pressure, lesions that work to compact unaffected tissues, intellectual hydrops, and hypoxia.Epidemiology of Mild Traumatic Brain InjuryNinety per centum of TBIs are considered mild, with infrequent intracranial complications that are either life threatening ( 10 % of instances ) or necessitate neurosurgical intercession ( 1 % o f instances ) ( Vos ) . Approximately 275,000 hospital ratings occur every twelvemonth in the U.S. for nonfatal TBI. A concussion is considered a mild TBI ( Callahan ) . One survey ( McCrea et al, in Iverson ) on concussions in athleticss reported that 30 % of high school football participants indicated that they had suffered at least one concussion antecedently ; 15 % of participants indicated that they had suffered a concussion during the present football season. There are about 1.12 million mild TBIs each twelvemonth in the U.S. However, figure may be underestimated, as many persons who sustain mild TBI do non seek medical attending after being injured and are hence non evaluated in the exigency room or admitted into the infirmary ( Sosin, in Iverson ) .MechanismUnderstanding the mechanism of hurt is indispensable for proper intervention. This offers several indispensable chances to the health professional: the first is the chance to be assured that no facet of the initial hurt has been overlooked or missed ( Nolan ) ; the second is the chance to avoid possible complications secondary to the primary abuse. There are 3 primary mechanisms of TBI hurt: blunt, penetrating, and blast. However, it is the conveyance of energy to encephalon tissue that causes the subsequent harm. This conveyance may be summarized as follows: KE = M/2 x V2 in which KE = kinetic energy ; M = mass ; and V = speed. Beginning: ( Nolan )Blunt TraumaBlunt traumatic hurt is the most common cause of TBI. Blunt trauma often consequences from motor vehicle accidents, bike or bike accidents, falls, featuring accidents, or assaults. Motor vehicle accidents account for 50 % of all blunt traumatic hurts. This figure includes accidents that consist of motor vehicles, bikes, bikes, motor vehicle and prosaic hits. ( Nolan ) . Determining force of impact in blunt traumatic hurt, peculiarly in motor vehicle accidents, helps practicians predict badness of hurt, short and long term effects, and likely forecast. In motor vehicle accidents, force is determined by 5 different factors: mass ten acceleration, way, continuance, and rate. To give an illustration: If an unrestrained rider is thrown from an car going at 30 miles per hour, this is the same force of impact as if that individual fell from a 3 narrative edifice. Badness of hurt, and subsequent anticipation of effects can be determined by the per centum of impact the rider absorbs. For case, in a bike accident, the rider absorbs 100 % of the force of impact. TBI in bike accidents causes 75 % of all correlative deceases. However, if the rider wears a helmet, hazard of decease diminutions, because the rider will absorb a lower force of impact in the event of an accident. Similarly, if riders in cars wear safety belts, or are siting in cars equipped with air bags, the hazard of decease diminutions, because the rider will absorb a lower force of impact in the event of an accident than they would hold if they had hit a windscreen or a place unrestrained. It is of import for practicians to cognize if incoming patients with TBI were in accidents with or without keeping devices.Penetrating TraumaPenetrating traumatic hurt is the consequence of a blunt of crisp object perforating the skull. The encephalon is so exposed and the object enters the encephalon. While force of impact is a factor in badness of hurt in perforating injury, factors such as point of entry and angle and deepness of entry must besides be considered when finding extent and badness of hurts. The highest figure of deceases related to perforating TBI are attributable to gunshot lesions. Practitioners are good served in holding basic cognition of ballistic trajectories and kinematics. Put merely, ballistic trajectories trades with the flight mechanics of objects such as slugs. Kinematicss in human gesture trades with the survey of human placement, angles, and speed in assorted organic structure sections ( Richey ) . In handling gunshot lesions, these scientific disciplines may be used to find extent and badness of hurt by first finding flight, force, and gesture. Three factors that determing the extent of hurt in gunshot lesions are frontal country, speed, and distance. The frontal country is the surface country of the slug where it strikes an object. Velocity refers to rush and is cardinal in the general extent of the hurt. Higher speed means higher energyer, which translates into higher force of impact. What this basically translates into is that a little quality slug going really fast can make more harm than a big quality slug going easy, and high speed arms do more harm than average speed arms. Therefore, speed in an hurt is an of import consideration for practicians. Finally, distance refers to how far off the victim was from the arm that caused the harm. When there is great distance between the victim and the arm, there has been chance for air opposition to diminish the speed of the slug, which decreases energy and therefore descreases the subsequent force of impact. This means that cognizing the approximative distance between the victi m and the arm is of import for practicians in finding extent and badness of hurts, every bit good as finding possible secondary complications.Blast TraumaBlast traumatic hurt consequences from a combination of blunt and perforating force hurts and is going more common. Blast traumatic hurt is often seen in soldiers returning from war zones, and understanding the mechanics of blast traumatic hurt is of import for practicians so they can understand how to care for patients who have suffered these injuries.CategorizationTBI hurt may be classified as either primary or secondary.Primary AbusesThe primary abuse in TBI occurs at the minute of impact. The primary abuse is the initial physical supplanting of physical encephalon tissue ( Menon ) . When the impact occurs, the extent of badness of hurt may be determined by the extent to which intellectual perfusion force per unit area ( CPP ) is adequately maintained. This is gauged by analyzing autoregulation of intellectual blood flow ( CBF ) , which is approximately estimated through ciphering CPP by taking the difference between the average arterial force per unit area ( MAP ) and intracranial force per unit area ( ICP ) . Cerebral blood vass autoregulate and maintain the desired CBF by compressing and distending in response to altering physiologic conditions ( Zwienenberg, in Heegaard ) . However, in the event of injury, autoregulation and CBF are often disrupted. When there is direct tissue harm that leads to dis-regulation of intellectual blood flow, metamorphosis is in bend disrupted, which consequences in anaerobiotic metamorphosis. Anaerobic metamorphosis does non supply sufficient cell energy ; hence, this in bend leads to the depletion of ATP shops and the membrane ion pump fails, as it is dependent on cellular energy. When the membrane ion pump fails, there is aggregate membrane depolarisation and a release of a tide of excitant neurotransmitters. This in bend incites coevals of free groups. These events cascade and lead to necrotic cell decease, which so incites secondary abuses. The extent of alteration to these facets is straight correlated with clinical result ( Heegaard ) . Immediate cell decease is the consequence of the primary hurt, and this harm to the encephalon tissue is irreversible ( Albert-Weisenberger ) . This is why many interventions focus on the suppression of secondary abuse Cascadess to protect the unity of the staying neurological architecture.Secondary AbusesThe secondary abuse consists of the complications that result from the primary abuse. Secondary abuses evolve more easy than primary abuses. Secondary hurts are both the consequence of badness of the primary hurt and may lend to the deterioration of the result of the primary hurt. Additionally, the type and grade of the secondary hurt is a major make up one's minding factor in the concluding clinical result ( Heegaard ) . Secondary abuses can be either extracranial or intracranial ( Maas ) . Examples of extracranial secondary abuses are hypoxia, hypothermia, hyperthermy, and hypotension. Examples of intracranial secondary abuses are intracranial high blood pressure, lesions that work to impact unaffected tissues, and intellectual hydrops. Secondary abuses may hold utmost inauspicious effects should they happen either prehospital or in infirmary, and practicians should watch for happening of these hurts.PATHOPHYSIOLOGYGeneral PathophysiologyOne signature feature of TBI is diffuse axonal hurt, which occurs as a direct consequence of the injury ( Sahler ) . Diffuse axonal hurt consequences from rotational forces that are in drama during traumatic impact. This is an illustration of a primary abuse, or hurt. There is direct tissue harm that leads to dis-regulation of intellectual blood flow and disrupted metamorphosis, which consequences in anaerobiotic metamorphosis. Anaerobic metamorphosis does non suppl y sufficient cell energy ; hence, this in bend leads to the depletion of ATP shops and the membrane ion pump fails, as it is dependent on cellular energy. When the membrane ion pump fails, there is aggregate membrane depolarisation and a release of a tide of excitant neurotransmitters. This in bend incites coevals of free groups. These events cascade to organize a perfect storm that lead to necrotic cell decease. This so leads to secondary abuses that may include conditions such as hypotension, anaemia, hypercarbia, acapnia, hypotension, intracranial high blood pressure, lesions that work to compact unaffected tissues, intellectual hydrops, and hypoxia.Specific PathophysiologyCerebral Blood FlowThe extent of badness of hurt may be determined by the extent to which intellectual perfusion force per unit area ( CPP ) is adequately maintained. This is gauged by analyzing autoregulation of intellectual blood flow ( CBF ) , which is approximately estimated through ciphering CPP by taking the difference between the average arterial force per unit area ( MAP ) and intracranial force per unit area ( ICP ) . Cerebral blood vass autoregulate and maintain the desired CBF by compressing and distending in response to altering physiologic conditions ( Zwienenberg, in Heegaard ) . However, in the event of injury, autoregulation and CBF are often disrupted. The Brain Trauma Foundation offers guidelines for pull offing CPP in patients who have suffered terrible TBI. It is recommended that CPP be maintained at over 60 millimeters Hg in these patients, as it has been shown that a really low CPP carries a important hazard of intellectual ischaemia, which in bend triggers a cascade of damaging pathophysiological procedures that threaten the unity of encephalon constructions ( Zink et al ) .Cerebrovascular AutoregulationAfter TBI occurs, autoregulation of CBF Ã¢â¬â significance cerebrovascular bottleneck or dilation that occurs in response to either additions or lessenings in CPP Ã¢â¬â is impaired or wholly destroyed in most patients ( Werner ) . Defective autoregulation of CBF may show itself instantly after the injury or it may develop over clip, and it is either transient or persistent in nature irrespective of the badness of the harm caused. Additionally, autoregulatory vasoconstriction appears to be more immune than does autoregulatory vasodilation. This indicates that patients may be more sensitive to damage from lower instead than higher CPPs.Cerebral VasospasmAn of import secondary abuse that decides patient result ( 37, 51, from Werner ) is post-traumatic intellectual vasospasm, which occurs in over tierce of TBI patients. Vasospasm indicates terrible encephalon harm. The extent of hypoperfusion and temporal profile with post-traumatic vasospasm contrasts vasospasm that occurs post-aneurysmal subarachnoidal bleeding. Onset varies from twenty-four hours 2 to twenty-four hours 15 and hypoperfusion typically occurs in 50 % of patients that develop vasospasm.Cerebral Metabolic DysfunctionCerebral metamorphosis and energy are frequently reduced after TBI ( 15, 12, 18, 23 Werner ) . The grade of decrease or failure of metamorphosis straight relates to the badness of the primary abuse, and result is worse in patients with lower metabolic rates as compared to patients with minor or no intellectual metabolic disfunction ( 72 Werner ) . An alternate event, hypermetabolism, may besides happen ( 4, 9, in Werner ) . This event is driven by the brief ionic fluxation of the transmembrane with back-to-back neuroexcitation that are non sufficiently met by additions in CBF. This failure supports the cascade of secondary ischaemic hurt.Cerebral OxygenationA characterizing quality of TBI is the instability between the bringing and ingestion of intellectual O. This mismatch is induced by several vascular and hemodynamic mechanisms, but the common end point to be discussed is tissue hypoxia. The critical threshold of O force per unit area, as measured in the encephalon tissue of patients enduring from TBI indicates, is 15-10 millimeter Hg PtO2 ( 28, 56 ) . Below this threshold, infarction of the neural tissue occurs. Consequently, the extent and continuance of tissue hypoxia correlates with result. However, want of O to the encephalon with secondary encephalon harm may happen even with normal CPP or intracranial force per unit area ( ICP ) ( 65 ) .EdemaEdema formation is a frequent happening after TBI. Brain odema related to structural harm or osmotic instability prompted by the primary or secondary abuse. Vasogenic encephalon hydrops: Caused by autodigestive or mechanical break or the dislocation of the endothelial cells of the encephalon. This allows for uncontrolled ion and protein transportation from the intravascular encephalon to the interstitial encephalon, which prompts H2O accretion and increases extracellular infinite. ( 16,68 ) Cytoxic encephalon hydrops: The qualifying factor of this hydrops is the intracellular accretion of nerve cells, astrocytes, and microglia. This occurs irrespective of the vascular endothelial cell wall, and is caused by increased membrane permeableness, the failure of the ionic pump as a consequence of energy depletion, and reabsorbtion of osmotically active solutes ( 64, 68 ) Both vasogenic and cytoxic edemic relate to increased ICP and secondary ischaemic abuses ( 41, 42 )InflammationTBI prompts an array of immunological and inflammatory tissue responses. Both primary and secondary abuses prompt the release of free groups, proinflammatory cytokines, and prostaglandins.Necrosis and ApoptosisThere are two different types of cell decease that can happen after TBI. One is mortification, which is the localised decease of cells due to an hurt. The other is apoptosis, or the programmed decease of a cell. Necrosis occurs as a response to major mechanical or ischaemic hypoxic tissue harm associated with an inordinate release of excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters, which is besides accompanied by metabolic failure. Phospholipases, lipid, and proteases later autolyse the membrane and the ensuing cell dust is perceived to be an antigen that is so removed by imflammatory procedure. Scar tissue is later left in its topographic point. In programmed cell death, nerve cells are integral during the period instantly following injury and have equal ATP production. However, programmed cell death becomes evident hours or even yearss after the primary hurt. This occurs because programmed cell death is an immunological response that occurs in reaction to perceived immune menace ( Elmore ) . Immune menace may happen when cells are damaged, and hence programmed cell decease occurs to extinguish damaged cells.SIGNS/SYMPTOMSGlasgow Coma ScaleThe Glasgow Coma Scale is the major graduated table for finding extent and badness of abuse, and for determing the deepness and continuance of coma, as based on verbal public presentation, motor reactivity, and oculus gap to the appropriate stimulations. The GCS offers practicians the chance to estimate the impact of harm related to the primary abuse every bit good as ongoing and germinating harm as secondary abuses present themselves. The graduated table is as follows: Eye Opening Response: 4 Spontaneous Ã¢â¬â unfastened with winking 3 To verbal stimulation, bid, or address 2 To trouble merely 1 No response Verbal Response: 5 Oriented 4 Baffled conversation, but with the ability to react to inquiries 3 Inappropriate words 2 Inexplicable address 1 No response Motor Response: 6 Obeys bids for motion 5 Motion with intent in response to painful stimulations 4 Withdrawal from painful stimulations 3 Flexion in response to painful stimulations 2 Extension in response to painful stimulations 1 No response The entire mark is so calculated by adding the single tonss from oculus opening response, verbal response, and motor response and caput hurts are classified as follows: A GCS mark of 13 Ã¢â¬â 15 signifies minor caput hurt ; a GCS mark of 9 Ã¢â¬â 12 signifies moderate caput hurt ; and a GCS mark of ? 8 signifies terrible head hurt. Beginning: Center for disease control and prevention A patient is considered comatose if he or she has a GCS of 3 Ã¢â¬â 8, has no oculus gap, no verbalisation of words, and does non hold the ability to follow bids. Glasgow Coma Scale Ã¢â¬â Modified for Pediatrics ( Pons Ã¢â¬â Fr book ) Childs who have suffered TBI must be treated otherwise than grownups. The Glasgow Coma Scale has besides hence been modified for rating of kids and is scaled based on the age of the kid, as follows: EYE Opening: 1 twelvemonth: 4 Spontaneously 3 To verbal bid 2 To trouble 1 No response 0 Ã¢â¬â 1 twelvemonth: 4 Spontaneously 3 To shout 2 To trouble 1 No response BEST MOTOR RESPONSE: 1 twelvemonth: 6 Obeys 5 Localizes hurting 4 Flexion backdown 3 Flexion abnormal 2 Extension 1 No response 0 Ã¢â¬â 1 twelvemonth: 5 Localizes hurting 4 Flexion backdown 3 Flexion abnormal 2 Extension 1 No response BEST VERBAL RESPONSE: & A ; gt ; 5 old ages: 5 Oriented and converses 4 Disoriented and converses 3 Inappropriate words 2 Inexplicable sounds 1 No response 0 Ã¢â¬â 2 old ages: 5 Cries suitably, smilings, coos 4 Cries 3 Inappropriate weeping or shriek 2 Grunts 1 No response 2 Ã¢â¬â 5 old ages: 5 Appropriate words and phrases 4 Inappropriate words 3 Cries or shout 2 Grunts 1 No response The entire mark is so calculated by adding the single tonss from oculus gap, best motor response and best motor response. A GCS mark of 13 Ã¢â¬â 15 signifies minor caput hurt ; a GCS mark of 9 Ã¢â¬â 12 signifies moderate caput hurt ; and a GCS mark of ? 8 signifies terrible head hurt. Beginning: Pons Ã¢â¬â Fr bookDiagnosisIn general, naming TBI requires practicians maintain several things in head: First, while the basic mechanisms of TBI are easy distinctive, each TBI injury is alone and patients react otherwise when it comes to response to both primary and secondary abuses. Second, it is indispensable to detect non merely mechanics but besides to detectTBIIn any TBI, the practician must foremost find the fortunes of primary harm. The primary hurt can be either spread or focal. Focal hurts are customarily caused by direct impact to the caput. These by and large result in vascular hurts, cortical bruise, and bleeding that is accompanied by ischaemia ( Albert-Weisenberger ) . Diffuse hurts are customarily caused by acceleration-deceleration forces that leads to spread axonal harm ( Albert-Weisenberger ) .Mild TBIMild TBI falls onto a really wide spectrum ( Iverson ) . Mild TBI can run from mild neurometabolic encephalon alterations that have rapid recovery clip to permanent jobs that come as a consequence of structural encephalon harm. Mild TBI does n't needfully typically do encephalon harm, but it is errant to presume that it can non do encephalon harm. Given the wide spectrum mild TBI falls on, mild TBI is a really individualised hurt and must be treate d as such. The bulk of people who sustain mild TBI recover rapidly and to the full. However, there are some who sustain mild TBI who have long term jobs and necessitate long term attention. Long term jobs may be caused either by the primary abuse, by secondary factors, or by preexistent or co-existing factors that cause or exacerbate jobs. These preexistent or co-existing factors may include Ã¢â¬â but are non limited to Ã¢â¬â factors such as preexistent wellness or mental conditions, chronic hurting, and personality features. It is indispensable for practicians to see these and other factors that can do or worsen jobs after mild TBI in order to find extent of harm to the individual Ã¢â¬Ës encephalon and if there is lasting harm. It is besides of import for practicians to find if the hurt is a complicated or unsophisticated mild TBI. This can be determined by using the undermentioned regulation ( Iverson ) : Complicated mild TBI is noted as holding structural abnormalcy that is seeable on neuroimaging Uncomplicated mild TBI is noted as holding normal neuroimaging Diagnosis of complicated versus unsophisticated mild TBI may be accomplished with a computed imaging ( CT ) scan. There are farther diagnostic standards for of both of these: Complicated Mild TBI is diagnosed if: The individual has a GCS mark of 13 Ã¢â¬â 15 but still shows encephalon abnormalcy of some sort, such as haematoma, bruises, or edema on CT or MRI ; or If the individual has a skull break Uncomplicated Mild TBI is diagnosed if: The individual has no intracranial abnormalcies and no skull break All other standards for badness Muse besides be in the mild scope Concussions are considered mild TBIs. This is the general diagnostic term utilized for mild caput hurts sustained in athleticss and are normally associated with good recovery. However, concussions are on a spectrum, as are other caput hurts in the mild TBI scope, and it is indispensable for practicians to cognize patient history when offering intervention.Traumatic Brain Injury in SportsTraumatic Brain Injury in the Geriatric PopulationTraumatic Brain Injury in Neonates, Children, and AdolescentsTraumatic Brain Injury in Military PopulationsTBI sustained by military populations may differ from TBI sustained by civilian populations, although the extent to which a difference exists, and what that difference may be, is presently unknown ( Maas ) . However, soldiers deployed in combat locations are more likely to endure blast TBI and perforating TBI than are civilians located in non-combat locations. Recent surveies estimated that about 10 % Ã¢â¬â 20 % of military personnels returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom tested positive for a likely TBI ( Hoge, Vasterling, Schell Ã¢â¬â in Maas ) . Further, soldiers enduring from mild TBI frequently find that TBI is complicated by post-traumatic emphasis upset ( PTSD ) , although exact incidence of comorbidity as compared to civilian populations is non known, since surveies of civilian populations with TBI do non normally include post-traumatic emphasis upset as a step. However, the issue of post-traumatic emphasis upset must non be minimized in military populations, because its effects may make a distinguishable and alone sensitiveness to the impact TBI has. For case, PTSD may do sleep perturbations, which can worsen TBI secondary abuse.Clinical HistoryIt is of import for practicians to observe whether or non patients who have suffered TBI have a history of old or multiple TBI, as these may both impact result. It is indispensable that each happening of TBI be recorded and that there be an accurate and accessible patient history detailing TBI happening to let for careful intervention of the current TBI.Physical ExamProbesTreatmentNeurorehabilitation is the basic term utilized to depict the general rehabilitation of those persons who have functional damages as a consequence of an hurt or disease that has affected the cardinal nervous system ( CNS ) ( Levine ) . Rehabilitation for TBI may be provided in a assortment of scenes, including ague and subactute installations, place attention, or outpatient attention. The appropriate location for rehabilitation depends on a figure of factors, including the badness of the initial hurt, the attached damages, the degree of demand for ongoing medical attention, and the length of clip that has passed since the initial hurt. Transportation to a rehabilitation scene is by and large considered one time a patient with TBI has been stabilized and no longer requires intensive attention intervention on a uninterrupted footing. However, certain standards must be met for admittance to an ague attention installation ( Levine ) . These include: Medical complexness necessitating specialised nursing expertness in rehabilitation and that a physician be present around the clock. Reasonable outlook that there will be betterment in map and discharge into the community within a sensible sum of clip. Deficits in map that require a lower limit of 3 hours of specialised rehabilitation therapy. Those who do n't run into the standards but who still can non return place because they suffer TBI related damages are to be considered for admittance to a subacute rehabilitation plan. Subacute rehabilitation plans provide less intensive medical and nursing intercession Home attention is intended for persons who no longer necessitateTreatment of Mild TBIEarly intercession is indispensable in people who have suffered a mild TBI, as early intercession, instruction, and confidence of a good result may cut down frequence of post-mild TBI symptoms such as memory loss, concern, and weariness ( Iverson ) . The chief end of early intercession plans is to advance uneventful recovery and the recommencement of normal activities, such as the return to work. Early intercession plans offer patients educational stuffs and appraisals such as neuropsychological testing, meetings with a healer, and entree to a squad that will assist in their recovery ( Ponsford, in Iverson ) . Education attempts are aimed at supplying information sing symptoms, likely recovery times, class and reassurance of recovery, and suggested get bying schemes to cover with post-mild TBI symptoms ( Ponsford, in Iverson ) . Depression is common after mild TBI, although the exact cause of the depression is frequently hard to find, as the cause is often multifactorial. Depression can originate as a reaction to the hurt itself, to life stressors either created in response to the hurt, or it could be preexistent. Depression rates in the first 3 months after a mild TBI have ranged from 12 % Ã¢â¬â 44 % ( Horner et al, in Iverson ) . Depression symptoms closely mirror those of post-concussive upset, supplying a diagnostic challenge for practicians. Given this, some research workers have merely recommended a class of antidepressant intervention ( Zafonte, 2002 in Iverson ) or cognitive behavioural therapy ( CBT ) ( Mittenberg in Iverson ) with orienting toward intervention of post-concussion syndrome. Other research workers have besides recommended these interventions with the add-on of exercising for mild depression ( Mead et al, in Iverson ) to better temper and self-pride.PrognosisEarly ConsequenceLate ConsequencesTBI incites an inflammatory response that activates the micro-glia in abode every bit good every bit good as white blood cells permeating from the cardinal nervous system. Post-traumatic redness may go on for many months or even old ages after the initial hurt ( Faden ) . TBI besides incites chronic and acute neurodegeneration ( Faden )PreventionTBI may be prevented by supplying persons with proper sa fety instruction on the types of bad behaviours that can take to TBI. Additionally, functionaries can work to place populations that are at particularly high hazard for enduring TBI. In making so, safety steps can so be instituted to assist take down the prevalence of TBI in these populations. Further, offering recommendations on safety cogwheel in high hazard athleticss and educating leaders ( ie managers ) in these countries may take to farther cut downing cases of TBI. Additionally, educating the populace on the difference safety points such as have oning safety belts while driving and siting in autos and have oning helmets while biking or siting a bike can do may take to lowered case of TBI. Besides, educating the populace on immaterial substances that increase the hazard of TBI, such as the usage of intoxicant, would be prudent, as avoiding the usage and maltreatment of such points may assist lower cases of TBI.DecisionTraumatic hurt of the caput and encephalon has been a serious issue for world since the morning of civilisation. When external force is applied, an change in encephalon map may ensue. This change in encephalon map is referred to as traumatic encephalon hurt ( TBI ) ( Menon ) . TBI occurs most normally after a sudden blow or daze to the caput ( Spencer ) . There are 3 primary mechanisms of TBI hurt: blunt, penetrating, and blast ( Nolan ) . TBI may be mild, moderate or terrible. There are two categorizations of TBI: primary abuses and secondary abuses. The primary abuse occurs at the minute of impact. The secondary abuse consists of the complications that result from the primary abuse. While TBI may look stray and trauma confined to the caput, it is in fact a complex, chronic, and dynamic procedure that requires consistent attending as associated affected organic structure systems are managed ( Losiniecki, Masel ) . Additionally, TBI presents otherwise and must be treated otherwise in different populations. Neonates, kids, and geriatric populations present in different ways and must be treated otherwise in neurosurgical units for both mild and terrible TBI. The hereafter of TBI sees research workers acknowledging the importance of and taking intiative in traveling toward standardisation in specifying TBI and informations aggregation across surveies of TBI ( Maas ) .
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Source Code with it's unique twist on the classic time-loop scenario, brings mystery, action and a refreshing sci-fi structure for the audiences amazement. This film, like many sci-fi thrillers of the past, plays on societal issues with technology and it's potentially dangerous implications to the world. The plot, although minimalistic at a glance, unfolds with twists and turns that carry this sci-fi thriller to places never before seen by the sci-fi genre. As film reviewer, Peter Bradshaw, put it, Ã¢â¬Å"with twists and turns, and at breathtaking speed, this film runs on rails.  Science Fiction is a genre that is almost entirely based upon societies complicated relationship with technology and it's potential implications on society. In the film, the main technology presented is a program unsurprisingly called Ã¢â¬Å"Source Code. Ã¢â¬ The program allows our lead character, Colter Stevens', brain to access the body of a man who is already dead. The technology works by accessing the last eight minutes of person's memory and turning it into an alternate reality. It is described by its creator, Dr. Rutledge, as a tool for revisiting rather than revising time. Through source code, Colter Stevens becomes Sean, a victim of a train-bombing outside Chicago. Although the train-bombing has already occurred, other acts of terror are imminent in downtown Chicago. If Stevens is to use source code as expected he is to find out who is responsible for the train bombing and relay his findings to the people of the present so they may prevent further incidents. Each time his eight minutes are up, Stevens finds himself within a pod wired with a video screen. This screen is his only link Dr. Rutledge's unit and Stevens' commanding officer, Colleen Goodwin. The pod is a metaphysical set created to explain Stevens' thoughts and feelings. The room is essentially his mind and all that is going within it. The environment of the pod changes as Stevens' comprehension of the situation increases. The metaphysical nature of this set seems extremely intentional as there are essentially only three different sets used throughout the films entirety. The use of this Ã¢â¬Å"pod likeÃ¢â¬ set is very similar in nature to that of the sets from 2001: A Space Odyssey in the sense that they are combining wholly human elements nto technological environments.  Each time Stevens returns to the train, he gathers more information about the bomb, the bomber, and the other people on the train, including Christina, the love interest. Once Stevens returns with the name of the bomber his mission is over. At this point in the film, Stevens learns that he died in the helicopter over Afghanistan and now only exists within the source code. After learning this, he c onvinces Goodwin to allow him back in one more time to save everyone on the train and die knowing they were all saved. However, once everyone has been saved, he does not die and will live as Sean for the rest of his life. Source Code is similar to many movies from the 1950s and '60s because of its use of relevant political issues to strike fear within the viewer. Much like how the Cold War paranoia permeated science fiction through features like War of the Worlds (1954) and The Day the Earth Stood Still (1951), the current fear of terrorism trickles through Source Code's plot.  An obvious manifestation of this fear is the bomber himself. Derek Frost appears to be a young, white, suburban male and because his appearance is not that of a stereotypical terrorist, Stevens overlooks him as a suspect initially. By using the least likely suspect as the antagonist, Source Code is challenging our current beliefs on terrorism that only non-American's can be classified as terrorists. By creating this unlikely villain, source code creates relevance to the disaster, and realism to the situation. The unlikely villain shows that through technology anyone can really become a threat to society. The introduction of this average citizen villain prompts us to question our responsibility with technology. Here technology's power is illustrated because it transforms our Ã¢â¬Å"averageÃ¢â¬ Derek into a super-villain capable of catastrophic events. On the other hand, we are also confronted with the potential life saving ability of the source code. Dr. Rutledge believed source code was only capable of saving lives that had not been already lost. However, the program enabled Stevens to not only save lives on the train, but also his own. Stevens doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t just jump through action-flick hoops, he also confronts some Big Questions Ã¢â¬â Are we alone? Are we free? Do we have free will? Ã¢â¬â the importance of which become clear as the outlines of StevensÃ¢â¬â¢s true circumstances are revealed. Ã¢â¬  The implication of this notion is very apparent as Stevens becomes more aware of his situation. His initial experiences within source code are consumed by selfish tasks s uch as trying to locate his father and find out what has happened to him. However, as he begins to understand source code and believes that his life no longer exists, his motives quickly change. Once Stevens begins to use source code for the greater good, he himself is also freed. This is a direct commentary on our usage of technology itself in that we need to use technology for the greater good and not for selfish means. It is this notion that we the audience is left to ponder. Will technology bring humanity to a never before seen existence or destroy our being entirely? Bibliography Cook, David A. A History of Narrative Film. New York: W.W. Norton. 498-499, 925-927. Bradshaw, Peter. Ã¢â¬Å"Source Code Review.Ã¢â¬Å" The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2011/mar/31/source-code-review (accessed April 12, 2011). Dargis, Manohla. Ã¢â¬Å"Don't Know Who You Are, but Don't Know Who I Am.Ã¢â¬ The New York Times. http://movies.nytimes.com/2011/04/01/movies/jake-gyllenhaal-in-source-code-review.html (accessed April 12, 2011).
FahysÃ¢â¬â¢s work Ã¢â¬Ëover thereÃ¢â¬â¢ is part of her depiction for the new metropolis, a series of work portraying the overcrowded, polluted urban life. The work is representational of urbanization and the dehumanized materialism of the modern society. The composition is a striking combination of bold color strokes against a black and white backdrop. Bright red, orange and streaks of highlighter green are combined with black, white and shades of grey to achieve a distinguished tonality of color for the frame. A three dimensional perception is created with the contour lines of the buildings vanishing in perspective. The artist has used mixed media to create a unique effect on cardboard. The artwork conveys a very gloomy image and represents chaos and destruction in the very composition or depiction. The buildings are distorted at unruly angles and the general composition is deliberately disorderly conveying the intended message to the viewer. The main content is the confusion and the chaos surrounding the urban landscape. The work portrays a concrete jungle in contortion posing an analogy to the mechanical unearthly life pattern of the urban society. The subject matter is urbanism; gigantic cities, towering skyscrapers and expansion of human population. Cities and vertical expansions were once considered to create a communal environment however Ã¢â¬Å"these giant cities that aim at developing human relationships do have a dehumanized aspect. In the transition from the old real world to the new virtual world, human beings will make the scaring experience of their smallness relative to the massÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬ËClaire Fahys and the new MetropolisÃ¢â¬â¢, n . d) . Art here is used as a convincing medium of communication to convey a message, on the fearful aspect of dehumanization, to the community. Iman MalekiÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËMemory of that houseÃ¢â¬â¢ Image from http://imanmaleki. com/en/Galery/wish. htm Iman Maleki is a contemporary realist artist. The image chosen here does not fit into the conventional sense of art, as it looks more like a photograph than a work of traditional art. The image is a three dimensional work of art with depth, perspective and an interesting play of light and shade. The medium used is oil on canvas. The various objects and forms are combined creatively rendering a well balanced organized outlook to the composition. The texture is soft and natural. The reflection of light on the wall is captured well. The openness of the house and its relationship to the various elements of nature represented in the work is conveyed clearly through an objective rendering of the sky, the greenery and the building itself. The woman portrayed is seemingly well absorbed in world of her own. The frame rekindles memories of a house with the many remembrances associated with it. The work has the effect of transporting the viewer to another plane of imagination, to another space altogether; a space that comes refreshingly alive in memory. The rendering of the brick, cement mortar, the weather marks on the brick and cement mortar, the woman in her traditional clothing, the exposed part of her skin and every other element is captured to the finest detail. The image is objective and is representational of the house that is depicted in the framework. The main subject matter is the house itself detailed brick by brick and fond memories of that house conveyed visually. The colors used are soft, subtle and natural. References Claire Fahys and the new Metropolis, n . d. www. thefrenchartstudio. com. 26 July 2009
Saturday, September 14, 2019
1. How many members are there in your family? a) 3 b) 4 c) 5 d) More than 5 2. How man y children are there in your family? a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 3. Children ask you money to buy the product which they like. a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Neither agree nor disagree d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree 4. Children rush in to watch their favourite advertisement a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Neither agree nor disagree d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree 5. Children listen to minute sounds in the advertisement a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Neither agree nor disagree d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree 6. Children are stubborn to buy a product a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Neither agree nor disagree d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree 7. What type of food product do they prefer Ã¢â Noodles Ã¢â Soft drinks Ã¢â Chocolates Ã¢â Fruit drinks Ã¢â Snacks 8. Children often prefer junk foods instead of healthy food a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Neither agree nor disagree d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree 9. Children often talk about advertisement after watching it a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Neither agree nor disagree d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree 10. Children forget the advertisement when they see the next advertisement a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Neither agree nor disagree d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree 11. Children are attracted towards an advertisement because of the background music a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Neither agree nor disagree d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree 12. Children are attracted towards advertisement when they show children of their age group a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Neither agree nor disagree d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree 13. Children select the product by their own which they use a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Neither agree nor disagree d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree 14. Children prefer only tasty food and not healthy food a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Neither agree nor disagree d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree 15. Children are attracted when cartoon characters are shown in advertisement a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Neither agree nor disagree d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree 16. Children health is spoiled because of advertisement of junk foods a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Neither agree nor disagree d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree 17. Children get diverted in studies due to advertisement a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Neither agree nor disagree d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree 18. Children force you to buy the product immediately a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Neither agree nor disagree d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree 19. Children prefer product when any free gifts where given which are useful for playing a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Neither agree nor disagree d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree