Thursday, October 31, 2019

Public Policy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Public Policy - Essay Example It also helps in evaluating financial as well as non-financial data which helps to improve and enhance domestic performance of a country. They help a government to make critical decisions which may include processes efficiency, investing in new administrative functions, improvement of infrastructure etc. It is mostly intended towards public policies and it also utilizes the information which can help governmental organizations in making decisions which help them to achieve their goals and objectives. Only limitations which can be placed when emphasis is placed on public management is diversion from administrative functions. According to Lonsdale (1999), the role of Public management has been highly important in the growth and development of the public sector of the UK since the last few decades. It has helped to develop a very important way of re-arranging and re-organizing public and government sector bodies within the UK for and has integrated various important disciplines such as management, financial reporting, auditing etc. In a broader context, the concept of public managementfocuses on failures and incompetency of public sector management and evaluates the nature and process of public sector activity along with public administration. Several important public sector issues as Utilization of resources, waste management, accountability etc are related with public management. Public management in UK has certainly explored some extremely important and very influential expressions for the economic policies of the country and also the business related as well as public sector reforms of the UK governme nt which has occurred since 1979 (Pollitt, 1993).The impact of the Public management policy in the UK has been highly influential and this has resulted in some very important changes which the many political parties within the UK have left untouched. The government of UK implemented certain very

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Research Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 7750 words

Research Proposal Example These may produce negative impact on the outcomes. In order to minimize the impacts of these risks and uncertainties, business organizations, very often go for insuring their assets, physical as well as human capital. However, the decision for purchasing this financial product is not a random decision. Insuring decision of any business organization depends on various factors. Most of the large business houses purchase insurance as soon as they enter into the market or start their operation. However, for small and medium business enterprises (SMEs), non-insurance or under-insurance is a common phenomenon. The proposed study will try to find out the factors that play significant roles behind the making of an insurance decision for SMEs. This study is mainly concerned with Australian SMEs and hence it will focus on insurance decision making of Australian small and medium business enterprise small scale business owners of Gold Coast and Brisbane district. This study will take into accoun t small scale business owners of Gold Coast and Brisbane district. In order to conduct a successful research, it is necessary to conduct a rigorous review of existing relevant literatures. This review of literatures will be helpful in constructing the theoretical framework for the proposed study as well as it will show the gap in existing literatures and will b helpful in providing justification for the proposed study. Since the proposed study is concerned with insurance decision making of SMEs, two types of literatures will be reviewed. First of all, focus will be placed on those literatures which provide some theoretical explanations of insurance decision making under risk and uncertainty. Then focus will be shifted to the empirical findings of the existing literatures relating to the operation of SMEs and their insurance decisions, primarily in the context of Australian market. Risks and uncertainties have attracted attention of a large number of researchers as risks and

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Brand elements for managing fast food restaurant

Brand elements for managing fast food restaurant Brand Management is the method of applying activities to products, and brands which will help enhance and maintain brand equity. Brand management is a very big topic, out of it comes many roots and are called brand elements, such as brand equity, brand research, customer based brand equity model, designing the brand, brand loyalty, brand advertising, brand pricing and etc. A brand which is the logo, name, symbol, and slogan, is supervised by a brand manager. For example, nestle has many products such as tea, milk, and ice cream, each brand of these has a brand manager who is responsible for it. Brand can also be physical feeling such as packaging, physical appearance and guarantees, not just a name that pops up into a consumer mind (Aaker and Biel 1993:33) .In 1980s people started to realize that the weight of the company is measured by its brand, and not by its physical assets (Kapferer 2008:18), Brand success is measured by its ability to maintain in a good position in the market a nd never leave a customer mind. The five stages of brand cycle measures whether the brand is succeeding or not: (Benson ,2006) The brand definition. The awareness experience. The buying experience. The using and service experience. The membership experience. (Benson ,2006) In order to define the brand and how its perceived by customers there are certain components which will help brand management understand how the brands are defined by the consumer: Who: the primary and valuable target customer for the product or service. What: features, capabilities, and offerings that are being offered. Why: customer make use of the benefit provided by the brand. How: the approach makes use of delivering the promise. (Benson,2006) Brand management must be careful when setting brands in different countries, because, brands maybe viewed differently by people according to their cultures, beliefs, values, and traditions. All of these points should be taken into consideration carefully because they can lead to failure or success of the band. Brand managers should study carefully where they are trying to position their brand, and who are the consumers that are going to be targeted, so that any misunderstanding of the brand could be avoided. Here are examples of how brand names are perceived differently from country to another: In Spain Mitsubishi Pajero is an insulting word while in Arab countries its a normal word. So here there is a problem which needs brand managers to get involved inorder to settle this misunderstanding. McDonalds all around the world is in a red color, but there is a state in USA were they perceive the red color as violence, so in order to solve this problem, McDonalds changed their color in this state into blue. Literature Review Brand Equity First of all I will define what is brand equity which is the value and weight of the brand to the consumer and how they are loyal to it. Perception and feelings toward a product and its performance is represented by brands, so brands are not just symbols and names they are the fundamentals for a company to acquire a strong relationship with the consumer. (Kotler 2008:230). Building strong brands is very important inorder to have the ability to survive and succeed in the market and be able to compete with other strong brands, their is a process to follow which will assist in building a strong brand they are : Brand positioning Brand managers their mission is to try positioning their brand in the consumers mind. The positioning of the brand comes at three levels which are attributes, benefits, beliefs and values. Attributes are the weakest level to position a brand (Kotler 2008:231). These days most of the competitors are copying each other attributes, but the thing they are missing here is that consumers no longer interested in the attributes it self but they are interested in what will the attributes help them to acheive. Benefits are the out comes that the consumer will get when using a certain brand. Beliefs and values are related to emotions, its about how purchasing these products empowers its socially conscious customer (Kotler 2008:232). Brand Name Selection A well choosen brand name can give a push to a brands success, but to find a name which will help in the success is very difficult (Kotler 2008:232). To choose a brand name we should take these following points into consideration: Simplisity in pronouncing the brand name, memorizing, and recognizing it. (Kotler 2008:232) A brand name should be unique. Simplisity in transalating it to other languages and at the same time avoiding, the misunderstanding of the names in different countries. Expanding the brand name by, widning the activities of the company. Brand sponsorship Brand sponsorship is very important, because it creates a kind of attraction and spreads the brand world wide, sponsoship could be involved in many events: Matches Concerts Tv. Show program Football players kit Brand Development When companies are willing to develop their brands, Their are ways to do it: Line extension: it happens when companies would like to extend the existing brand names to new, colors, sizes, forms, flavors, and etc (Kotler 2008:237). Brand extensions: extending the brands that are avaible right now to new products in a new category (Kotler 2008:237). Customer Based Brand Equity Their are questions that should be asked, regarding howa create a strong brand? And what other ways we could use to build strong brands? The CBBE model approaches brand equity from the perspective of the consumer, whether the consumer is an individual or an organization. Understanding the needs and wants of consumer and organization, and being able to satisfy them is the heart of successful marketing (Keller2008:48). D:Folderspictures83888258_80b2635f61.jpg . (Haddad 2008:24) The Customer based brand Equity was designed to be: Comprehensive ( Haddad 2008: 22) Cohesive ( Haddad 2008:22) Up to date ( Haddad 2008:22) Actionable ( Haddad 2008:22) Identifying each part of the CBBE pyramid: Salience: the brand awareness measurement. (Keller 2008:60) Performance: are the products and service meeting the customer. (Keller 2008:65) Imagery: are the ways in which the brand meets the psychological and social need of the customer. (Keller 2008:65) Judgments: the evaluation and the opinion of the customer towards the brand. (Keller 2008:67) Feelings: the response and reaction of the brand towards the customer. ( Keller 2008:68) Resonance: The relationship that the customer feels with the brand. ( Keller 2008:72) Brand Research Brand research is used to identify the feeling of the consumers towards the brand, which customers purchase the product, what other brands are competing with your brand. The need to know about the present customers: Why they choose your brand? Are they going to repurchase it? How are they using the product? Where do your customers purchase the products? (Haddad 2008:11) The best way to describe the consumers is through the segmentation variables which are geographic (nations, countries, neighbors, city), demographic (education, age, sex, income), psychographic (The market is being divided based on the personality) (belch2009: 51), Behavioristic( the consumers are divided into groups according to their loyalties, buying of the product, and usage) (belch2009: 52 ). There are other methods used to make research: Qualitative research: exploring the areas where knowledge doesnt exist. ( Tench Yeomans 2009: 204) Advantages Disadvantages Identify unknown information It takes a lot of time Provide insight into motivation Requires large amount of money Quantitative research: The results are expressed in numbers. ( Tench Yeomans 2009: 204) Advantages Disadvantage Generate comparable results Could mislead to irrelevant directions Clients have a higher percentage of accepting it Cant go into deeper analysis Brand Advertising Brand advertising increases the recognition of the consumers towards the brand; its also the generator which helps the business to succeed. Most of the owners, who own businesses, think of the brand as a logo with color and a slogan. They dont understand the relation between the brand and the consumer. The brands that really succeed are the ones which have emotional relationship with the consumer. So successful brand advertising is about how to make the consumer reach the emotional relationship with the brand. Owners might feel that their brand is credible and trustworthy but this is not enough, because they cant think from their own perspective, trustworthiness should reach customers in order to achieve brand loyalty and a strong brand. (Long, 2009) Forms of brand advertising: Television. Radio. Print ads. Internet. Bill boards. Banners. Relating brand elements to McDonalds( restaurant) How does McDonalds build brand equity? Advertising, building relationship with consumers, building trust, good service, trying to make our products affordable as much as possible to everyone, participating in community activities and fund raising, all of these factors will improve our image and create a strong brand. How are you going to build a strong brand using the brand strategy decisions? Brand positioning comes in three levels as I mentioned above, attribute (McDonalds are not just concentrating on their food attributes because, there are many junk food businesses who produce same attributes). Benefits (are what McDonalds concentrating on, they care about their food taste, freshness, place neatness and cleanness, and the satisfaction of customers after finishing their meal). Beliefs and values (in Egypt McDonalds dont offer pork meat because its against people values and beliefs). Brand name selection McDonalds is an easy name which could be memorized its very simple and kind of funny, this brand name differs from other fast food brand names, because McDonalds is trying to be different than other brand names, by sending message to consumers which is. Consumers can eat all they want, but they can have healthy life by controlling their food. Brand sponsorship McDonalds sponsors football teams, world cup 2010, it concentrates more on athletic activities and events so that they can create a healthy brand image. Brand development McDonalds are always trying to develop their products by having the best taste and reasonable price, developing their service by having the fastest home delivery service in Egypt. Developing their ads by making it more funnier and simple. How can McDonalds create successful customer based brand equity (CBBE?) Salience: consumers perceived McDonalds 43% best, 43% not bad, 14% bad. Performance: McDonalds target all consumer ages, and they also target class A, B, and C. Sandwiches prices The service in McDonalds is very fast in different ways, its the fastest delivery in Egypt, fastest problem response, and one of the best employee customer relationship. The style and design of the place is very clean, neat, and makes you happy and comfortable while sitting inside. Imagery McDonalds in Egypt started 15 years ago, and established 60 restaurants till now. McDonalds offer their products according to consumers values, beliefs, and cultures. For example in Ramadan, McDonalds offer iftar menu for people who are fasting. In Christmas they offer siyamy menu which is fillet fish. There are obstacles which are being faced trying to adopt another countries food, in Thailand McDonalds offer shrimps sandwiches because its their traditional food over there, you cant make consumers in Egypt adopt seafood sandwiches from McDonalds because its not their traditional food over here. Feelings McDonalds are doing their best to provide excitement and fun for their customers, McDonalds TV. Ads are very funny, during the half time of the matches; TV ads appear so viewers are encouraged to buy meals while they are watching the match. If there is a big match between Egypt and another country McDonalds designs the place with Egyptian flags, and they have artists for people who would like to draw on their faces. Judgments according to what we have mentioned above, customers are happy because we try to meet their need in every possible way, and solve any problem they face with our food or place. McDonalds Is a credible brand because its a very strong competitor all over the world, its the second best competitor in fast food businesses after KFC. Resonance There is a strong relationship with the employees and the customers, employees are always friendly and smiling to customers so that they can make them feel welcome, and they always try to make them comfortable as much as they can. How is Qualitative research being used? Qualitative research is being used to know how consumers see our products (tastes, freshness, new products, and etc.) Service (delivery service, employees relation, and place.) How is quantitative research being used? It provides assistance to know the quantity of combos needed to be increased daily, weekly, and monthly. It also identify what type of products are consumer demanding, the sandwich double big tasty was created using the quantitative research. How do use Advertising to strengthen McDonalds brand? McDonalds advertise mostly on television using simple and funny ads which will attract customers to buy their products. They used to advertise on radio too. McDonalds uses FP7 which is the advertising agency to help them, FP7 is working with McDonalds since 15 years ago, they helped them create the delivery TV ad, and other comedy ads. Off course McDonalds sponsors Egyptian football teams such as: Ghazl el mahala El gaish El masry All of this will help improve the advertising.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Austrian Immigration to Canada :: essays research papers

There are a lot of important migration routes nowadays; one of pretty crowded route is between the Canada and Europe. This essay will answer the questions of migration issue among the Austrian immigration to Canada. Canada can be identified simply as a country of vast geographical size, the second largest country in the world, but with a small population of some 25 million people, and is in many ways several countries accidentally linked by the historical development, peopled by different and distinct immigrant cultures, symbolised by having two official languages.(Brake, 1985, p.144) Immigration is a big complex issue that depends on individual choice but if there should be a generalisation it would be indicate as a struggle to create a new life with hopes by sweeping the past mostly. To an answer to why is it a â€Å"complex† issue, it can be said that the general dissatisfaction, which means, people migrating to other countries by leaving many things behind mostly nag abou t the conditions of the new country in terms of racism, ethnic prejudice also native residents complain about newcomers too. So if nothing has changed in terms of satisfaction why are these people still continuing to migrate? To make this question clearer, some points have to be highlighted as firstly brief information about how Austrians came to Canada then why Canada is attractive to Austrian residents, sociologic profile of Austrian immigrants, what are the contributions of immigrants for the migrated country and also the issue of native’s feedback to immigrants. Even tough Austrian immigration seems considerably positive for Canadians, they implement discriminations and prejudice among them. Immigrants from the Austro-Hungarian Empire began to arrive in Canada as early as the seventeenth century (who) were soldiers enrolled in French regiments which came to New France, sojourners, and settlers (Engellman, 1996, p.45). From 1880s on, more Austro-Hungarians immigrated to Canada and, after the turn of the century they were arriving on a large scale. During the world-wide crisis (1923-1929) the unemployment rate was on average 9.5 percent which followed on World War two by continuing rose more sharply still (Engellman, 1996, p.59). Moreover, in the Second World War period, Austrians had violent oppression and had fear about their on lives on racial grounds then they faced with a new problem: to find a secure place to live. Because of the unstable economy and having own problem in herself, Canada shut down their doors to large scale of refugees, but post-war period Austrian immigration also be successful, approximately 30,000 refugees and Austrian citizens found a new home th ere (Engellman, 1996, p.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Angels Demons Chapter 70-73

70 Gunther Glick and Chinita Macri sat parked in the BBC van in the shadows at the far end of Piazza del Popolo. They had arrived shortly after the four Alpha Romeos, just in time to witness an inconceivable chain of events. Chinita still had no idea what it all meant, but she'd made sure the camera was rolling. As soon as they'd arrived, Chinita and Glick had seen a veritable army of young men pour out of the Alpha Romeos and surround the church. Some had weapons drawn. One of them, a stiff older man, led a team up the front steps of the church. The soldiers drew guns and blew the locks off the front doors. Macri heard nothing and figured they must have had silencers. Then the soldiers entered. Chinita had recommended they sit tight and film from the shadows. After all, guns were guns, and they had a clear view of the action from the van. Glick had not argued. Now, across the piazza, men moved in and out of the church. They yelled to each other. Chinita adjusted her camera to follow a team as they searched the surrounding area. All of them, though dressed in civilian clothes, seemed to move with military precision. â€Å"Who do you think they are?† she asked. â€Å"Hell if I know.† Glick looked riveted. â€Å"You getting all this?† â€Å"Every frame.† Glick sounded smug. â€Å"Still think we should go back to Pope-Watch?† Chinita wasn't sure what to say. There was obviously something going on here, but she had been in journalism long enough to know that there was often a very dull explanation for interesting events. â€Å"This could be nothing,† she said. â€Å"These guys could have gotten the same tip you got and are just checking it out. Could be a false alarm.† Glick grabbed her arm. â€Å"Over there! Focus.† He pointed back to the church. Chinita swung the camera back to the top of the stairs. â€Å"Hello there,† she said, training on the man now emerging from the church. â€Å"Who's the dapper?† Chinita moved in for a close-up. â€Å"Haven't seen him before.† She tightened in on the man's face and smiled. â€Å"But I wouldn't mind seeing him again.† Robert Langdon dashed down the stairs outside the church and into the middle of the piazza. It was getting dark now, the springtime sun setting late in southern Rome. The sun had dropped below the surrounding buildings, and shadows streaked the square. â€Å"Okay, Bernini,† he said aloud to himself. â€Å"Where the hell is your angel pointing?† He turned and examined the orientation of the church from which he had just come. He pictured the Chigi Chapel inside, and the sculpture of the angel inside that. Without hesitation he turned due west, into the glow of the impending sunset. Time was evaporating. â€Å"Southwest,† he said, scowling at the shops and apartments blocking his view. â€Å"The next marker is out there.† Racking his brain, Langdon pictured page after page of Italian art history. Although very familiar with Bernini's work, Langdon knew the sculptor had been far too prolific for any nonspecialist to know all of it. Still, considering the relative fame of the first marker – Habakkuk and the Angel – Langdon hoped the second marker was a work he might know from memory. Earth, Air, Fire, Water, he thought. Earth they had found – inside the Chapel of the Earth – Habakkuk, the prophet who predicted the earth's annihilation. Air is next. Langdon urged himself to think. A Bernini sculpture that has something to do with Air! He was drawing a total blank. Still he felt energized. I'm on the path of Illumination! It is still intact! Looking southwest, Langdon strained to see a spire or cathedral tower jutting up over the obstacles. He saw nothing. He needed a map. If they could figure out what churches were southwest of here, maybe one of them would spark Langdon's memory. Air, he pressed. Air. Bernini. Sculpture. Air. Think! Langdon turned and headed back up the cathedral stairs. He was met beneath the scaffolding by Vittoria and Olivetti. â€Å"Southwest,† Langdon said, panting. â€Å"The next church is southwest of here.† Olivetti's whisper was cold. â€Å"You sure this time?† Langdon didn't bite. â€Å"We need a map. One that shows all the churches in Rome.† The commander studied him a moment, his expression never changing. Langdon checked his watch. â€Å"We only have half an hour.† Olivetti moved past Langdon down the stairs toward his car, parked directly in front of the cathedral. Langdon hoped he was going for a map. Vittoria looked excited. â€Å"So the angel's pointing southwest? No idea which churches are southwest?† â€Å"I can't see past the damn buildings.† Langdon turned and faced the square again. â€Å"And I don't know Rome's churches well enou – † He stopped. Vittoria looked startled. â€Å"What?† Langdon looked out at the piazza again. Having ascended the church stairs, he was now higher, and his view was better. He still couldn't see anything, but he realized he was moving in the right direction. His eyes climbed the tower of rickety scaffolding above him. It rose six stories, almost to the top of the church's rose window, far higher than the other buildings in the square. He knew in an instant where he was headed. Across the square, Chinita Macri and Gunther Glick sat glued to the windshield of the BBC van. â€Å"You getting this?† Gunther asked. Macri tightened her shot on the man now climbing the scaffolding. â€Å"He's a little well dressed to be playing Spiderman if you ask me.† â€Å"And who's Ms. Spidey?† Chinita glanced at the attractive woman beneath the scaffolding. â€Å"Bet you'd like to find out.† â€Å"Think I should call editorial?† â€Å"Not yet. Let's watch. Better to have something in the can before we admit we abandoned conclave.† â€Å"You think somebody really killed one of the old farts in there?† Chinita clucked. â€Å"You're definitely going to hell.† â€Å"And I'll be taking the Pulitzer with me.† 71 The scaffolding seemed less stable the higher Langdon climbed. His view of Rome, however, got better with every step. He continued upward. He was breathing harder than he expected when he reached the upper tier. He pulled himself onto the last platform, brushed off the plaster, and stood up. The height did not bother him at all. In fact, it was invigorating. The view was staggering. Like an ocean on fire, the red-tiled rooftops of Rome spread out before him, glowing in the scarlet sunset. From that spot, for the first time in his life, Langdon saw beyond the pollution and traffic of Rome to its ancient roots – Citt di Dio – The city of God. Squinting into the sunset, Langdon scanned the rooftops for a church steeple or bell tower. But as he looked farther and farther toward the horizon, he saw nothing. There are hundreds of churches in Rome, he thought. There must be one southwest of here! If the church is even visible, he reminded himself. Hell, if the church is even still standing! Forcing his eyes to trace the line slowly, he attempted the search again. He knew, of course, that not all churches would have visible spires, especially smaller, out-of-the-way sanctuaries. Not to mention, Rome had changed dramatically since the 1600s when churches were by law the tallest buildings allowed. Now, as Langdon looked out, he saw apartment buildings, high-rises, TV towers. For the second time, Langdon's eye reached the horizon without seeing anything. Not one single spire. In the distance, on the very edge of Rome, Michelangelo's massive dome blotted the setting sun. St. Peter's Basilica. Vatican City. Langdon found himself wondering how the cardinals were faring, and if the Swiss Guards' search had turned up the antimatter. Something told him it hadn't†¦ and wouldn't. The poem was rattling through his head again. He considered it, carefully, line by line. From Santi's earthly tomb with demon's hole. They had found Santi's tomb. ‘Cross Rome the mystic elements unfold. The mystic elements were Earth, Air, Fire, Water. The path of light is laid, the sacred test. The path of Illumination formed by Bernini's sculptures. Let angels guide you on your lofty quest. The angel was pointing southwest†¦ â€Å"Front stairs!† Glick exclaimed, pointing wildly through the windshield of the BBC van. â€Å"Something's going on!† Macri dropped her shot back down to the main entrance. Something was definitely going on. At the bottom of the stairs, the military-looking man had pulled one of the Alpha Romeos close to the stairs and opened the trunk. Now he was scanning the square as if checking for onlookers. For a moment, Macri thought the man had spotted them, but his eyes kept moving. Apparently satisfied, he pulled out a walkie-talkie and spoke into it. Almost instantly, it seemed an army emerged from the church. Like an American football team breaking from a huddle, the soldiers formed a straight line across the top of the stairs. Moving like a human wall, they began to descend. Behind them, almost entirely hidden by the wall, four soldiers seemed to be carrying something. Something heavy. Awkward. Glick leaned forward on the dashboard. â€Å"Are they stealing something from the church?† Chinita tightened her shot even more, using the telephoto to probe the wall of men, looking for an opening. One split second, she willed. A single frame. That's all I need. But the men moved as one. Come on! Macri stayed with them, and it paid off. When the soldiers tried to lift the object into the trunk, Macri found her opening. Ironically, it was the older man who faltered. Only for an instant, but long enough. Macri had her frame. Actually, it was more like ten frames. â€Å"Call editorial,† Chinita said. â€Å"We've got a dead body.† Far away, at CERN, Maximilian Kohler maneuvered his wheelchair into Leonardo Vetra's study. With mechanical efficiency, he began sifting through Vetra's files. Not finding what he was after, Kohler moved to Vetra's bedroom. The top drawer of his bedside table was locked. Kohler pried it open with a knife from the kitchen. Inside Kohler found exactly what he was looking for. 72 Langdon swung off the scaffolding and dropped back to the ground. He brushed the plaster dust from his clothes. Vittoria was there to greet him. â€Å"No luck?† she said. He shook his head. â€Å"They put the cardinal in the trunk.† Langdon looked over to the parked car where Olivetti and a group of soldiers now had a map spread out on the hood. â€Å"Are they looking southwest?† She nodded. â€Å"No churches. From here the first one you hit is St. Peter's.† Langdon grunted. At least they were in agreement. He moved toward Olivetti. The soldiers parted to let him through. Olivetti looked up. â€Å"Nothing. But this doesn't show every last church. Just the big ones. About fifty of them.† â€Å"Where are we?† Langdon asked. Olivetti pointed to Piazza del Popolo and traced a straight line exactly southwest. The line missed, by a substantial margin, the cluster of black squares indicating Rome's major churches. Unfortunately, Rome's major churches were also Rome's older churches†¦ those that would have been around in the 1600s. â€Å"I've got some decisions to make,† Olivetti said. â€Å"Are you certain of the direction?† Langdon pictured the angel's outstretched finger, the urgency rising in him again. â€Å"Yes, sir. Positive.† Olivetti shrugged and traced the straight line again. The path intersected the Margherita Bridge, Via Cola di Riezo, and passed through Piazza del Risorgimento, hitting no churches at all until it dead-ended abruptly at the center of St. Peter's Square. â€Å"What's wrong with St. Peter's?† one of the soldiers said. He had a deep scar under his left eye. â€Å"It's a church.† Langdon shook his head. â€Å"Needs to be a public place. Hardly seems public at the moment.† â€Å"But the line goes through St. Peter's Square,† Vittoria added, looking over Langdon's shoulder. â€Å"The square is public.† Langdon had already considered it. â€Å"No statues, though.† â€Å"Isn't there a monolith in the middle?† She was right. There was an Egyptian monolith in St. Peter's Square. Langdon looked out at the monolith in the piazza in front of them. The lofty pyramid. An odd coincidence, he thought. He shook it off. â€Å"The Vatican's monolith is not by Bernini. It was brought in by Caligula. And it has nothing to do with Air.† There was another problem as well. â€Å"Besides, the poem says the elements are spread across Rome. St. Peter's Square is in Vatican City. Not Rome.† â€Å"Depends who you ask,† a guard interjected. Langdon looked up. â€Å"What?† â€Å"Always a bone of contention. Most maps show St. Peter's Square as part of Vatican City, but because it's outside the walled city, Roman officials for centuries have claimed it as part of Rome.† â€Å"You're kidding,† Langdon said. He had never known that. â€Å"I only mention it,† the guard continued, â€Å"because Commander Olivetti and Ms. Vetra were asking about a sculpture that had to do with Air.† Langdon was wide-eyed. â€Å"And you know of one in St. Peter's Square?† â€Å"Not exactly. It's not really a sculpture. Probably not relevant.† â€Å"Let's hear it,† Olivetti pressed. The guard shrugged. â€Å"The only reason I know about it is because I'm usually on piazza duty. I know every corner of St. Peter's Square.† â€Å"The sculpture,† Langdon urged. â€Å"What does it look like?† Langdon was starting to wonder if the Illuminati could really have been gutsy enough to position their second marker right outside St. Peter's Church. â€Å"I patrol past it every day,† the guard said. â€Å"It's in the center, directly where that line is pointing. That's what made me think of it. As I said, it's not really a sculpture. It's more of a†¦ block.† Olivetti looked mad. â€Å"A block?† â€Å"Yes, sir. A marble block embedded in the square. At the base of the monolith. But the block is not a rectangle. It's an ellipse. And the block is carved with the image of a billowing gust of wind.† He paused. â€Å"Air, I suppose, if you wanted to get scientific about it.† Langdon stared at the young soldier in amazement. â€Å"A relief!† he exclaimed suddenly. Everyone looked at him. â€Å"Relief,† Langdon said, â€Å"is the other half of sculpture!† Sculpture is the art of shaping figures in the round and also in relief. He had written the definition on chalkboards for years. Reliefs were essentially two-dimensional sculptures, like Abraham Lincoln's profile on the penny. Bernini's Chigi Chapel medallions were another perfect example. â€Å"Bassorelievo?† the guard asked, using the Italian art term. â€Å"Yes! Bas-relief!† Langdon rapped his knuckles on the hood. â€Å"I wasn't thinking in those terms! That tile you're talking about in St. Peter's Square is called the West Ponente – the West Wind. It's also known as Respiro di Dio.† â€Å"Breath of God?† â€Å"Yes! Air! And it was carved and put there by the original architect!† Vittoria looked confused. â€Å"But I thought Michelangelo designed St. Peter's.† â€Å"Yes, the basilica!† Langdon exclaimed, triumph in his voice. â€Å"But St. Peter's Square was designed by Bernini!† As the caravan of Alpha Romeos tore out of Piazza del Popolo, everyone was in too much of a hurry to notice the BBC van pulling out behind them. 73 Gunther Glick floored the BBC van's accelerator and swerved through traffic as he tailed the four speeding Alpha Romeos across the Tiber River on Ponte Margherita. Normally Glick would have made an effort to maintain an inconspicuous distance, but today he could barely keep up. These guys were flying. Macri sat in her work area in the back of the van finishing a phone call with London. She hung up and yelled to Glick over the sound of the traffic. â€Å"You want the good news or bad news?† Glick frowned. Nothing was ever simple when dealing with the home office. â€Å"Bad news.† â€Å"Editorial is burned we abandoned our post.† â€Å"Surprise.† â€Å"They also think your tipster is a fraud.† â€Å"Of course.† â€Å"And the boss just warned me that you're a few crumpets short of a proper tea.† Glick scowled. â€Å"Great. And the good news?† â€Å"They agreed to look at the footage we just shot.† Glick felt his scowl soften into a grin. I guess we'll see who's short a few crumpets. â€Å"So fire it off.† â€Å"Can't transmit until we stop and get a fixed cell read.† Glick gunned the van onto Via Cola di Rienzo. â€Å"Can't stop now.† He tailed the Alpha Romeos through a hard left swerve around Piazza Risorgimento. Macri held on to her computer gear in back as everything slid. â€Å"Break my transmitter,† she warned, â€Å"and we'll have to walk this footage to London.† â€Å"Sit tight, love. Something tells me we're almost there.† Macri looked up. â€Å"Where?† Glick gazed out at the familiar dome now looming directly in front of them. He smiled. â€Å"Right back where we started.† The four Alpha Romeos slipped deftly into traffic surrounding St. Peter's Square. They split up and spread out along the piazza perimeter, quietly unloading men at select points. The debarking guards moved into the throng of tourists and media vans on the edge of the square and instantly became invisible. Some of the guards entered the forest of pillars encompassing the colonnade. They too seemed to evaporate into the surroundings. As Langdon watched through the windshield, he sensed a noose tightening around St. Peter's. In addition to the men Olivetti had just dispatched, the commander had radioed ahead to the Vatican and sent additional undercover guards to the center where Bernini's West Ponente was located. As Langdon looked out at the wide-open spaces of St. Peter's Square, a familiar question nagged. How does the Illuminati assassin plan to get away with this? How will he get a cardinal through all these people and kill him in plain view? Langdon checked his Mickey Mouse watch. It was 8:54 P.M. Six minutes. In the front seat, Olivetti turned and faced Langdon and Vittoria. â€Å"I want you two right on top of this Bernini brick or block or whatever the hell it is. Same drill. You're tourists. Use the phone if you see anything.† Before Langdon could respond, Vittoria had his hand and was pulling him out of the car. The springtime sun was setting behind St. Peter's Basilica, and a massive shadow spread, engulfing the piazza. Langdon felt an ominous chill as he and Vittoria moved into the cool, black umbra. Snaking through the crowd, Langdon found himself searching every face they passed, wondering if the killer was among them. Vittoria's hand felt warm. As they crossed the open expanse of St. Peter's Square, Langdon sensed Bernini's sprawling piazza having the exact effect the artist had been commissioned to create – that of â€Å"humbling all those who entered.† Langdon certainly felt humbled at the moment. Humbled and hungry, he realized, surprised such a mundane thought could enter his head at a moment like this. â€Å"To the obelisk?† Vittoria asked. Langdon nodded, arching left across the piazza. â€Å"Time?† Vittoria asked, walking briskly, but casually. â€Å"Five of.† Vittoria said nothing, but Langdon felt her grip tighten. He was still carrying the gun. He hoped Vittoria would not decide she needed it. He could not imagine her whipping out a weapon in St. Peter's Square and blowing away the kneecaps of some killer while the global media looked on. Then again, an incident like that would be nothing compared to the branding and murder of a cardinal out here. Air, Langdon thought. The second element of science. He tried to picture the brand. The method of murder. Again he scanned the sprawling expanse of granite beneath his feet – St. Peter's Square – an open desert surrounded by Swiss Guard. If the Hassassin really dared attempt this, Langdon could not imagine how he would escape. In the center of the piazza rose Caligula's 350-ton Egyptian obelisk. It stretched eighty-one feet skyward to the pyramidal apex onto which was affixed a hollow iron cross. Sufficiently high to catch the last of the evening sun, the cross shone as if magic†¦ purportedly containing relics of the cross on which Christ was crucified. Two fountains flanked the obelisk in perfect symmetry. Art historians knew the fountains marked the exact geometric focal points of Bernini's elliptical piazza, but it was an architectural oddity Langdon had never really considered until today. It seemed Rome was suddenly filled with ellipses, pyramids, and startling geometry. As they neared the obelisk, Vittoria slowed. She exhaled heavily, as if coaxing Langdon to relax along with her. Langdon made the effort, lowering his shoulders and loosening his clenched jaw. Somewhere around the obelisk, boldly positioned outside the largest church in the world, was the second altar of science – Bernini's West Ponente – an elliptical block in St. Peter's Square. Gunther Glick watched from the shadows of the pillars surrounding St. Peter's Square. On any other day the man in the tweed jacket and the woman in khaki shorts would not have interested him in the least. They appeared to be nothing but tourists enjoying the square. But today was not any other day. Today had been a day of phone tips, corpses, unmarked cars racing through Rome, and men in tweed jackets climbing scaffolding in search of God only knew what. Glick would stay with them. He looked out across the square and saw Macri. She was exactly where he had told her to go, on the far side of the couple, hovering on their flank. Macri carried her video camera casually, but despite her imitation of a bored member of the press, she stood out more than Glick would have liked. No other reporters were in this far corner of the square, and the acronym â€Å"BBC† stenciled on her camera was drawing some looks from tourists. The tape Macri had shot earlier of the naked body dumped in the trunk was playing at this very moment on the VCR transmitter back in the van. Glick knew the images were sailing over his head right now en route to London. He wondered what editorial would say. He wished he and Macri had reached the body sooner, before the army of plainclothed soldiers had intervened. The same army, he knew, had now fanned out and surrounded this piazza. Something big was about to happen. The media is the right arm of anarchy, the killer had said. Glick wondered if he had missed his chance for a big scoop. He looked out at the other media vans in the distance and watched Macri tailing the mysterious couple across the piazza. Something told Glick he was still in the game†¦

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Anti-Discrimination CASE NOTE Essay

INTRO The Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (Qld) aims to ensure equality among society yet it appears the recent amendment specifically allows discrimination.1 This judgement will be assessed on the basis for the appeal application, the judgements and the issues and questions which this case raises. I FACTS GK was a self-employed sex worker. GK periodically stayed at the Drovers Rest Motel at Moranbah for the purposes of sex work. Mrs Hartley, director of Dovedeen Pty Ltd and manager of the motel, denied GK, the respondent, further accommodation because she was aware GK was performing sex work. Mrs Hartley advised her that she would have to stay somewhere else. GK acknowledged that the refusal to accommodate her at Drovers rest was not because of who she was but because of what she was doing. Mr Hartley, also director of Dovedeen Pty Ltd, gave evidence that his understanding was that legally he could not allow people to conduct a business in the motel and under the Liquor Act 1992 (Qld). GK complained of direct discrimination on the basis of her engagement in ‘lawful sexual activity’. A leave for appeal against the Appeal Tribunal’s decision has now been applied for by Dovedeen Pty Ltd and Mrs Hartley proceeding on the 19 March 2013. II JUDGMENTS Fraser JA states that it was an error of law that the Appeal Tribunal held that the prohibition in the Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 includes ‘the treatment of a person less favourably because he or she carries on lawful sexual activity on †¦ particular premises.’2 The initial trial concluded that any person wishing to carry out such activities as prostitution would be refused accommodation and therefore GK was not treated less favourably than any other who was not a lawfully employed sex worker seeking a room for the same purposes.3 For this reason GK was not the subject of direct discrimination. Upon an internal appeal it was rather found that the conduct of Dovedeen Pty Ltd and Mrs Hartley did in fact violate the Anti-Discrimination Act 1991, suggesting that it was incorrect to imply that  the relevant provision in the act was so limited as to mean that a person is only protected if they are treated less favourably where they are not carrying out the activity bu t have the status, character, or reputation of being a sex worker which is such that different treatment of that person is justified.4 The notice of the new Appeal includes six grounds of appeal of which two were found to challenging findings of fact: i) ‘The Tribunal erred in finding that there was no distinction between a person’s status of a lawfully employed sex worker and the engagement of sex work by that sex worker. ii) The Tribunal erred in finding the appropriate comparator was a person who was seeking to use the motel for any lawful purpose’5 III ISSUES ON APPEAL The attribute of ‘lawful sexual activity’ is defined as ‘a person’s status as a lawfully employed sex worker, whether or not self-employed’6 in the Schedule of the Anti-Discrimination Act.7 Between having the status of a sex worker and performing the work of a sex worker, The Court noted, there is a distinction and established that it is the status that is protected in the relevant Act. This definition of status within the Anti-Discrimination Act is deemed applicable except in circumstances where the context would indicate differently. There appears to be no such indication, coupled with the fact that the attributes outlined in Section 7 are central to the operation of the Act. Section 28 is the only other place in the Act where ‘lawful sexual activity’ is used, and refers to an exemption which permits discrimination in work with minors where it is reasonably necessary to take into consideration the whole context and circumstance of the c ase, including the person’s actions.8 Hence, activity is a relevant circumstance rather than the attribute itself. Without the definition being included within the Act, the Act could be interpreted as prohibiting discrimination in the provision of accommodation as a result of the person being engaged in lawful sexual activity on the premises. The inclusion on the Act of the definition prevents such an interpretation, due to the fact that it is only a person’s status as a sex worker that is protected. There are four attributes that involve ‘activity’, namely ‘breastfeeding’, ‘political activity’, ‘trade union activity’ and ‘religious activity’.9 The Court compared the definition  of ‘lawful sexual activity’ with these four, and found that only religious activity is defined in the Act. Such a definition implies that religious activity has categories of activity or non-activity, whereas lawful sexual activity has no such definition and is defined only in the form of ‘status’. Hence, it may be concluded that the attribute cannot be extended beyond ‘status as a lawfully employed sex worker’10 to include the category of activity – the engaging in prostitution on the premises. Thus the Appeal Tribunal erred in this regard. In applying the test in section 10(1)11 one must identify the characteristics relevant in the comparator. The court applied Purvis,12 and state that ‘circumstances that are the same or not materially different’13 include ‘all of the objective features which surround the actual or intended treatment’14 of the claimer. It was viewed that the Tribunal identified the incorrect comparator due to the notion that a person who intends to use a room for purposes of prostitution is not necessarily a person without the attribute15. Additionally the Appeal Tribunal was also viewed as incorrect in the identification of a comparator as an individual who was seeking accommodation for the use of any lawful purpose excluding lawful sexual activity or prostitution. This is due to the disregard that description includes of the activities which were intended to be conducted by GK, therefore the circumstances are not ‘the same or materially different’16 as required in section 10(1)17. The most suitable comparator when applying section 10(1)18 was an individual who was not a lawful sex worker but wanted accommodation for the purpose of conducting a series of separate sexual encounters with different others at various times.19 At this point one must consider then if a sex worker who is less busy or successful would be in a conceptually different position to either the decided comparator or to the Complainant. 20It was the occurrence of prostitution in the motel that was the object of refusal rather than the multiple sexual encounters.21 Therefore should the comparator be determined by ‘reference to the number of sexual encounters expected to be engaged in?’22 Section 8 of the Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 includes the definition of discrimination on the basis of an attribute. An argument was made that  lawful sex work conduct is a characteristic of the attribute in consideration; ‘lawful sexual activity’. This was rejected by the Court and argued that The work done by a person in any remunerative occupation is not properly described as a ‘characteristic’ or typical ‘feature or quality’ of the person’s status as a worker in that occupation; it is simply the activity done by the person to earn remuneration. Section 8 does not extend the reach of the Act in the way for which GK contended.23 There remains the unresolved issue with regards to the interplay between the two Acts – the Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 and the Liquor Act 1992. The appeal did not consider this aspect, and both the tribunal in the first instance and the Appeal Tribunal concluded differently. Section 152 of the Liquor Act24 prohibits a business being conducted on licensed premises, other than that authorised specifically by the licence. On the other hand, Sections 82 and 83 of the Anti-Discrimination Act25 prohibits discrimination in the accommodation and pre-accommodation areas of a premise. The tribunal in the first instance identified this as an inconsistency, and referring to the Attril v State of Queensland, upheld the more recent Act (the Liquor Act) in regards to this inconsistency. However, this finding has been overturned by both the Tribunal and the Court of Appeal. The distinction between ‘a business’ and the conduct of ‘a business activity’ was raised, th ereby establishing that Section 152 of the Liquor Act 1992 26was not inconsistent with any section of the Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 which pertains to the providing of accommodation to a person who may then engage in lawful sexual activity in that place27. Under the QCAT Act, the Tribunal made orders to protect the privacy of GK by use of initials. Orders of this nature do not apply to the proceedings in The Court of Appeal where they have been made by the Tribunal. The Court of Appeal does have power to make these orders however an application must be made. It was assessed in reference to Russell v Russell 28that the nature of the courts and their proceedings are transparent referencing that ‘publicity is the authentic hall-mark of judicial as distinct from administrative procedure.’29 It was noted that despite the majority’s sympathy they would not allow to pass a pseudonym order however the circumstances where the  court may exercise its power to make such an order were not closed30. V OUTCOME Leave to appeal granted, appeal allowed and decisions and orders made by the Appeal Tribunal of QCAT to be set aside. The appeal to the Appeal Tribunal against the decision of QCAT made on 25 Oct. 2011 should be dismissed. Finally, parties are allowed to make submissions as to the costs of proceedings in Court of Appeal and of the appeal to the Appeal Tribunal in the QCAT. Legal reasons for the concluding decisions are that that there were errors in the previous trial which were established The Tribunal identified inconsistency in Section 152 of Liquor Act 31and section 82 and 83 of the Anti-Discrimination Act32 which was overturned with the conclusion that there was no inconsistency. There was error found in the conclusions made in reference to the attribute of ‘lawful sexual activity’ with the establishment that the attribute, in fact, cannot be extended beyond status as a lawfully employed sex worker to include the category of activity. Additionally it was found that the comparator disregard the description used includes of the activities which were intended for the room hired. These facts can be noted as the ratio decidendi. A noteworthy obiter dictum includes the consideration of orders protecting the privacy of GK. Extensive discussion occurred in relation to this issue considering fundamental reasons why courts are designed to be transparent and public and weighing those factors with the implications of publishing of GK’s name for her and her young children. IV IMPACT AND IMPLICATIONS It is only legal to engage in sex work in Licensed brothels, which are often unsafe and harmful places, or on your own where accommodation services not only protected your privacy but constitutes a safe environment.33 This case was one that brought lawful sex workers from across the state together to rally for their rights as it is clear this case was not just about GK. There was ample support from individuals and also groups such as the support group Respect Queensland to help GK pay for her legal bills. The decision to allow  appeal and, upon a loss to GK, many in the industry will be affected.34 Furthermore it affects not only those in the industry but the Queensland society and law; ‘It would seem that potentially the decision†¦ or the changes have quite alarmingly entrenched this idea in legislation that it’s okay to discriminate against a particular type of lawful sexual activity.’35 There are now fears that this may push sex workers onto streets in o rder to earn their livelihood. This case sets an important legal precedent. It is the first time Queensland has specified this issue. Before the complaint to the Commissioner, the accommodation industry either looked past the fact individuals were using their rooms for sex work or would make payments for prostitutes to stay away.36 It was found that there were many other cases of similarity waiting for the verdict of this case in order to rely in its precedent value. Following the final hearing of this case, the Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (Qld) has now been amended to ensure clarity that discrimination on the basis of lawful sexual activity in providing accommodation, complaints will not succeed. VI CONCLUSION A summary analysis would seem to reveal the importance of assessing the intersections between relevant Acts (such as the Liquor Act and the Anti-Discrimination Act) and the contextual interpretation of such concepts as ‘status’ and ‘lawful activity’. The legislation also brings a community and democratic and political dimension to bear. It is clear this case has many implications for the Queensland society. A precedent such as this ‘suggests that anti-discrimination laws have a really long way to go to protect people who are engaging in lawful sexual activity’.37 This case highlights the difficulty in some areas distinguishing between the person and their occupation and the requirements for undertaking their occupation. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Articles/Books/Reports Anti-Discrimination Commission Queensland, Dovedeen Pty Ltd v GK [2013] QCA 116 (2013) Elise Worthington ‘Qld Court rules prostitution was not discriminated against’ (2013) ABC. Melbourne University Law Review Association, Melbourne Journal of International Law; Australian Guide to Legal Citation, 3rd Ed. (2010) Richard Krever, Writig a Case Note, Mastering law studies and law exam techniques, Butterworths, %th ed (2001) pp. 13-22 Richard Krever, amended by Micheal Quinlan, Guide to Reading a case and to preparing a case not (2014) Survive Law, How to write a case note (2010), 2. Cases Dovedeen Pty Ltd & Anor v GK [2013] QCA 116 (2013) (17 may 2013) Dovedeen Pty Ltd & Anor v GK[2013] QCA 194 (19 July 2013) GK v Dovedeen Pty Ltd and Anor [2011] QCAT 441 (22 March 2011) GK v Dovedeen Pty Ltd and Anor (No 2) [2011] QCAT 445 (15 September 2011) GK v Dovedeen Pty Ltd & Anor (No 3) [2011] QCAT 509 (25 October 2011) GK v Dovedeen Pty Ltd and Anor [2012] QCATA 128 (31 July 2012) Lyons v State of Queensland (No 2) [2013] QCAT 731, ( 1 December, 2013) 3. Legislation Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (Qld) Liquor Act 1992 (Qld) 4. Other Survive Law, Dovedeen Pty Ltd & Anor v GK [2013] QCA 116 (2013)

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Free Essays on Young Goodman Brown

Dreading the Dark of Humanity Nathaniel Hawthorne?s ?Young Goodman Brown,? widely regarded as one of his finest works, illustrates vividly how society and culture can influence one?s sense of reality (53 ). Goodman Brown is everyman of general intelligence striving to live and achieve a better life (60 ). Faith and righteousness were daily themes in Puritan society, however when Goodman Brown faces change in his perception, the once solid foundation is washed away. The journey into the wilderness enlightens Brown to societal truths amidst his struggle within himself and against fellow men. It is a dreaded walk on the dark side of the human heart (26 ). Consuming most of Hawthorne?s tale is a test of faith. For three months Brown has been married to a young woman symbolizing his faith (60 ). She even carries this name and lets her role in the story tie to that aspect of her husband?s life. Brown calls for his wife three times as he stands before the devil at the alter. Goodman then cries, ?My Faith is gone.?(9 ) As Brown is drawn into the deepest shadows of the forest and enters the devils sacred service, Hawthorne dramatizes his feeling that once commitment to evil has been made, its purpose must prevail by securing a shelf in Goodman?s soul. There is no struggle of power to oppose it and in this tale the power is so unequal that Faith, supposedly the Devil?s antagonist, is drawn into the camp of the enemy (11 ). She appears at the service as a baptismal candidate along with Goodman, a faint insinuation that Faith has her own covenant with the Devil. This also suggests that her complicity may be prior to and deeper t han Brown?s, as Faith could?ve played a role in the path of her husband (12 ). Her possible involvement then brings on a submerged irony in the manner in which Faith comes to meet Goodman when he returns to the village, as if she had not been present in the forest. She greets him in a m... Free Essays on Young Goodman Brown Free Essays on Young Goodman Brown In 1835, Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote â€Å"Young Goodman Brown,† using analogies and historical chronologies to make the story of a young man traveling in the woods who meets up with the devil and sees the fate of the townspeople he loves and lives with. Far from a simple story, Hawthorne utilizes his own ancestry and a brilliance all of his own to teach a moral lesson to the reader and instill a sense of virtue. The story told is one of peril and fright, but the message given is one that can leave you with a positive impression and an awareness of your own self. Hawthorne’s fascination with seventeenth-century Puritan society can be attributed to his own ancestry. His great-great-great-grandfather came from England in 1630 with John Winthrop’s great migration, the first of his family line in America, and helped with the settling of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He settled first in Dorchester then later moved to Salem where his influence among the Puritan’s only grew. A close friend of Winthrop and other prominent officials in the town, William Hathorne, rose to the office of speaker in the House of Delegates and became a major in the Salem militia (Stewart, 1). He boldly defied Charles II in declining to return to England, along with Governor Bellingham, to dispute the accusation of â€Å"the colony’s persistent insubordination to royal authority† (Turner, 60). However, despite his heroic American traits, William Hathorne’s infamy lies in the prosecution of the Quakers and his brutality in hi s sentencing. Hawthorne wrote about him in â€Å"The Custom House†: The figure of the first ancestor, invested by family tradition with a dim and dusky grandeur, was present to my boyish imagination as far back as I can remember. It still haunts me, and induces a sort of home feeling with the past†¦.He was a soldier, legislator, judge; he was a ruler in the Church; he had all the Puritanic traits, both good and evil. He was lik... Free Essays on Young Goodman Brown Nathaniel Hawthorne’s short story â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† tells a tale of a young man, Goodman Brown, who takes a journey through the wilderness to define his true belief in his religious faith. Not only does Goodman Brown discover the inner evil in the holiest people he knows, but he finds out that his own wife, Faith, has turned to the devil. Hawthorne uses Faith and others to prove to people that every one has a little bit of evil and sin in them. Before Goodman Brown leaves Faith tells him that he should stay and not leave her on during the night, but he answers her back telling her it will be all right â€Å"My love and Faith.†(614) This jumpstarts the story by symbolizing that Faith is just not his wife, but shows that she is his religious faith as well. Goodman Brown refers to Faith throughout the journey in many different ways. When Goodman Brown first encounters the devil, he is asked why he is late. He replies â€Å"Faith kept me back awhile.†(614) Showing that he is not sure he really wants to proceed with the journey. In the mysterious woods, side-by-side walking with the devil Goodman Brown is very confused on continuing into the woods, but he keeps seeing holly people on the same path that he is traveling following the devil. Goodman Brown sees the first of his acutance, which shows the evil within themselves named goody Cloyse. She is encountered by brown and the devil as they are walking through the woods, the devil â€Å"pointed his staff at a female figure on the path†(616). This figure is an important figure in brown’s life. She is the same dame â€Å"who had taught his catechism, in youth and was still his moral and spiritual adviser† (616) Surprisingly, she turns around and begins a conversation with the devil. â€Å" The devil!† screamed the moral old lady. â€Å"Then goody Cloyse knows her old friends?† observed the traveler, confronting her, and leaning on his writhing stick. (616). This discussion be... Free Essays on Young Goodman Brown Reaction to â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† is an intriguing story that has been analyzed and debated for years. I thoroughly enjoyed reading this story and learned a great deal from it. I believe that this story is one of the best stories ever written. â€Å"Young Goodman Brown,† a short story by Nathaniel Hawthorne, is about a man who tests his faith and takes a journey with the devil in a dark forest. The story takes place in Salem, Massachusetts during the Salem witch trials. Goodman Brown had an internal conflict between good and evil. Even though his wife, Faith, tried to persuade him not to go, he felt that he needed to go on this trip that night. The devil kept persuading him to walk deeper and deeper into the forest. The deeper he walked the closer he was to evil. The devil showed Brown how many of the others he knew had already been on this trip including Faith, his father, his grandfather, the town deacon, and his old catechism teacher. Goodman Brown could not believe that these people he knew as good Christians would ever do such a bad thing. He did not realize that he was just as bad by doing the same thing when he met the devil. When he returned home he shut himself off from the world, because he saw i t as ! completely evil. I liked this story because it does a great job of portraying the theme of good and evil. Young Goodman Brown failed to realize that nobody is perfect because everyone sins. According to Angie Soler, â€Å"Hawthorne intended for the reader to become aware of the depravity accompanied by sin. He intended for the reader to view the reality of sin and the terror of the human hell that was revealed to Brown.† Brown judged and condemned others for sin without looking at his own sinfulness. I know that I sometimes look at other people and judge them. Hawthorne creatively showed me that this is not the right thing to do. By rejecting all of society and isolating him... Free Essays on Young Goodman Brown Young Goodman Brown – From Naivety to Maturity Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Young Goodman Brown is story illustrating the moral principle of good versus evil. Hawthorne uses symbolism and irony to relay his feelings towards man’s natural appetite for evil and the battle to avoid it in ones own heart. Following these literary elements takes the reader through a dream allegory filled with religious hypocrisy. Locating and examining the two most prominent symbols throughout the story allows the reader to experience how the attempted conversion of Young Goodman Brown results in a transformation from naivety to maturity. The first use of symbolism comes in the form of the names of Young Goodman Brown and his wife, Faith. Young in the name literally means that the main character is a young man. Hawthorne textually declares this when he writes’ â€Å"†¦young Goodman Brown†¦Ã¢â‚¬ (pg104). Goodman in the name symbolizes that he is a spiritual and good person. With Brown being such a common last name, it symbolizes that Goodman could be anyone or everyone. The name Faith has a dual symbolic meaning. It literally means religious faith and also represents Goodman Brown’s personal faith and religious convictions. This is apparent when Brown states, â€Å"My love and my Faith of all the nights in this year, this one night must I tarry from thee†(pg104). Here, Goodman Brown is referring to leaving his wife and his faith in God. Initially, Faith also represents youth as identified when Goodman Brown, â€Å"†¦put his head back, after crossing the threshold, to ex change a parting kiss with his young wife†(pg104). Though not understood until latter, it is this idea of a young good wife that reveals that Goodman’s initial state of naivety. Goodman is asked by his wife to stay home and not go on the journey. He thinks that she does not know about his journey to meet with the devil and thinks, â€Å"Methought as she spoke there... Free Essays on Young Goodman Brown Bewilderment In Nathaniel Hawthorne’s â€Å"Young Goodman Brown,† the main character, goodman Brown, undergoes a form of initiation. This initiation is brought forth by an elder dark figure. This figure, who actually is the devil, meets goodman Brown in the forest late in the evening. The devil leads goodman Brown deep into the forest where he encounters the biggest shock of his life. However, this trauma is too much for young goodman Brown, and it changes his life dramatically. After his experience in the woods, young goodman Brown is a changed man, and his new knowledge causes him to separate himself from the rest of the society. When goodman Brown separates himself from his society, he lives a life without friends because he fears being corrupted by everyone. Goodman Brown goes into the forest a young man who has been married for only three months to his love, Faith. Being young and unable to understand the complexity of human nature, goodman Brown saw people as either sinners or saints, there was no in between for him. In Puritan times, to go into the forest at night was unholy and sacrilegious. In order for goodman Brown to go into the forest, he must leave behind his wife, his faith, his religion, and his community; and for what, his curiosity. Once in the forest, the devil leads goodman Brown along a winding path in which goodman Brown begins to encounter his initiation. He comes across first goody Cloyse, who was the one that taught him his catechism. Goodman Brown wants to avoid any confrontation with goody Cloyse, so he cuts through the woods while the devil sticks to the path. It is when the devil approaches goody Cloyse that goodman Brown realizes that she is a follower of the devil, and good acquaintance. After this shock, goodman Brown refuses to proceed any further; however, the devil tries to convince him by saying, â€Å"‘You will think better of this, by-and-by’† (1239). Not wanting to press... Free Essays on Young Goodman Brown Young Goodman Brown – From Naivety to Maturity Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Young Goodman Brown is story illustrating the moral principle of good versus evil. Hawthorne uses symbolism and irony to relay his feelings towards man’s natural appetite for evil and the battle to avoid it in ones own heart. Following these literary elements takes the reader through a dream allegory filled with religious hypocrisy. Locating and examining the two most prominent symbols throughout the story allows the reader to experience how the attempted conversion of Young Goodman Brown results in a transformation from naivety to maturity. The first use of symbolism comes in the form of the names of Young Goodman Brown and his wife, Faith. Young in the name literally means that the main character is a young man. Hawthorne textually declares this when he writes’ â€Å"†¦young Goodman Brown†¦Ã¢â‚¬ (pg104). Goodman in the name symbolizes that he is a spiritual and good person. With Brown being such a common last name, it symbolizes that Goodman could be anyone or everyone. The name Faith has a dual symbolic meaning. It literally means religious faith and also represents Goodman Brown’s personal faith and religious convictions. This is apparent when Brown states, â€Å"My love and my Faith of all the nights in this year, this one night must I tarry from thee†(pg104). Here, Goodman Brown is referring to leaving his wife and his faith in God. Initially, Faith also represents youth as identified when Goodman Brown, â€Å"†¦put his head back, after crossing the threshold, to ex change a parting kiss with his young wife†(pg104). Though not understood until latter, it is this idea of a young good wife that reveals that Goodman’s initial state of naivety. Goodman is asked by his wife to stay home and not go on the journey. He thinks that she does not know about his journey to meet with the devil and thinks, â€Å"Methought as she spoke there... Free Essays on Young Goodman Brown Use Your Illusion In this time and age, people have become accustomed to disappointment and disillusionment from the figures that instill purpose and values into their lives. Be it Clinton’s parade of sex, lies and who knows maybe videotape to priests who enjoy the inappropriate company of young boys. People are jaded. This is not true of Nathaniel Hawthorn’s time. The people of that era had absolute faith and trust in their public figures. This sentiment increased exponentially when speaking of the clergy or church-related officials. In â€Å"Young Goodman Brown†, Hawthorne looks at one man’s decent into the murky woods of doubt and illusion of uprightness. In the story, â€Å"Young Goodman Brown†, Hawthorne shows a man who questions the backbone, which his community is assumedly built upon. As the story begins, Goodman Brown, a Puritan, is leaving his house around sunset. His wife, Faith, is trying to persuade him to depart at sunrise instead. His journey is to take him away for the night and he is to return at sunrise. He has a feeling of guilt for leaving her alone after being married to her for a mere three months, but he justifies his journey by swearing that after this night, he will â€Å"cling to her skirts and follow her to Heaven†(164). Brown’s wife Faith symbolizes his real faith in God and his journey into the darkness of the Salem woods is a symbol of evil and question of faith. Goodman Brown is about to begin his struggle between the evil temptations of the devil, and the church abiding life he knows as reality. He will challenge his faith in himself and the community in which he resides. He must venture into the local forest where puritans believe the devil resides, refuse the temptations of the devil, and return to the village before sunrise. After going into the woods and testing his faith, Goodman Brown sees his community as it truly is instead of the illusion he once knew as reality. Although... Free Essays on Young Goodman Brown The Irony and Symbolism of Young Goodman Brown In Young Goodman Brown, by Nathaniel Hawthorne, there are many different symbols and ironic happenings throughout the story. The author’s use of names and his idea of no one being perfect are portrayed extremely well. The main character, Young Goodman Brown, goes from one extreme to the other. In the beginning of the story, he believes everyone is good-natured and by the end, his views have changed drastically. It is unknown as to whether or not Brown is dreaming throughout the story or if it is actually reality. The symbolism and irony of this short story is very prevalent Hawthorne created the main characters name, Young Goodman Brown, to be symbolic as well as ironic. Young refers to his naivety. He is naà ¯ve because he goes to meet the Devil, not really knowing what he was getting himself into. The use of the name Goodman was ironic in the sense that he is not actually a good man because obviously he is intrigued by the Devil, since he goes to meet with the wicked one. Another name is Goody Cloyse, a Christian woman, who Brown notices while in the woods with the Devil. Brown departs with the Devil so she does not see him associating with the evil one. To Brown’s surprise, Goody Cloyse speaks to the Devil and he realizes she is well acquainted with him, meaning Goody Cloyse is not so good after all. Faith, Brown’s wife, is part of the irony of the story. She did not want her husband to leave, because she did not want the Devil to get his grasps on to her beloved husband. Brown thinks she does not want him to leave because she thinks he might commit the act of adultery while he is away. She is trying to protect him since she knows what it is like to be a part of the evilness of the community. This shows she has no faith in her husband concerning his faith in God. This is one of the reasons it is ironic her name is Faith. In the beginning of the story, the author describes ... Free Essays on Young Goodman Brown â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† Nathaniel Hawthorn was born into a Puritan family in 1804. Because of this many of his novels contained topics on ethical problems of sin, punishment, and atonement. His stories were all based in the seventeenth century when many things were happening to the puritan’s. Hawthorn’s story, â€Å"Young Goodman Brown†, is a prime example of this, where the story’s setting is in Salem, Massachusetts during the Salem witch trails. The reader sees many decisions being made by Brown that will reflect the rest of his life. These decisions can be seen through the theme, symbolism, and irony that takes place throughout the story. The theme of Nathaniel Hawthorn‘s â€Å"Young Goodman Brown,† is that everyone faces the conflicts of good and evil during their lives. The journey through this time of conflict becomes very difficult for Brown because of his inner desires pulling him in different directions. The first inner desire that he must face, is the desire to become a witch. The readers see this in the first of the story when Young Goodman Brown sets out on his own at night. The journey is one that can only be made at night for the Puritan’s did not go out at night because they labeled all who did as a witch. The story shows this main reason in the eight paragraph when it says, â€Å"With this excellent resolve for the future, Goodman Brown felt himself justified in making more haste on his present evil purpose.† (Page 317, line 25-26) Then the reader sees this decision change to good later in the story when he meets the devil in the woods and decides to turn back home before goi ng any further into the woods. As seen when Goodman Brown says, â€Å"Friend! Said the other, in exchanging his slow pace for a full stop, â€Å"having kept covenant by meeting thee here, it is my purpose now to return whence I came. I have scruples touching the matter thou wot’st of.†Ã¢â‚¬  (Page 318, line 25-27) This battles of ones sou... Free Essays on Young Goodman Brown Young Goodman Brown The short story â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† by Nathaniel Hawthorne is set in Salem, Massachusetts in 1692 during the Salem Witch Trials. The story was written and published in 1837 in Hawthorne’s â€Å"Twice Told Tales† shortly after Hawthorne’s graduation from Bowdoin College in Maine. Hawthorne’s main influences stem out of the New England Puritan culture. The Salem Witchcraft Trials and his puritan family background all shine through in his creation of this short story. One of his forefathers, Judge Hathorne actually presided over the Witchcraft Trials in 1692. (Note the change in spelling of the last name to help clear his name from the witchcraft incidences) According to my research, several of Hawthorne’s works deal directly with issues such as good vs. evil, alienation and isolation, and in Young Goodman Brown spiritual growth and pride. This story involves a young man’s journey into vast, unknown, uncharted back woods in Salem, Massachusetts. A place where it would be difficult to convince many people of that time to travel, but this is no vacation for Goodman Brown. It is a spiritual journey that he must embark upon to clear his spiritual conscience, and confirm his â€Å"Faith†. Hawthorne shows his belief that evil exists in everyone, and we all battle within to find that gracious faith in God. Goodman Brown even questions his companion on his journey through the woods by saying, â€Å"Can this be so! Howbeit, I have nothing to do with the governor and council; they have their own ways, and are no rule for a simple husband like me.† (p. 504) This quote begins to show Goodman Brown’s conversion from naivety to enlightenment into the evil ways of different men in his community. In the end, Hawthorne purely intends for his reader to take awareness into the evil ways of society, and to use that awareness to better deal with future situations. Isolation and complete rejection of all people who have... Free Essays on Young Goodman Brown Allegorical Symbolism in â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† An allegory is a narrative in which tangible items or characters symbolize abstract concepts and hold a greater significance than what appears on the surface (The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language 2000). The short story â€Å"Young Goodman Brown,† written by Nathaniel Hawthorne, is a great example of an allegorical story as it is filled with many symbolic elements. This paper will examine some of the symbols found within this narrative and decipher their possible meanings. More specifically, it will look at the characters Young Goodman Brown and his wife Faith, the pink ribbons, and the forest and argue that although they are to be taken in a literal sense, their most important meaning lies in what they are meant to represent. The character Young Goodman Brown is a central symbol in this tale. At first, as Erisman states, the name Young Goodman Brown may come across as a standard name for a man of the seventeenth century, but, upon closer investigation, it soon becomes evident that it stands for much more (124). For instance, the name â€Å"Goodman† indicates that Brown is, in fact, a good person with the moral characteristics of a devout Christian (124). In addition, the title â€Å"Young† is used as an allusion to his virtue as it signifies that he is faultless and pure (124). However, as soon as Brown ventures into the forest and converses with the elderly traveller (a representation of the devil), he loses the †Young† and is only referred to as Goodman Brown. It is as if, at this point, he loses everything in him that is decent and good. What's more, Miller asserts, â€Å"Brown† is a very common last name (240) and is used, according to Levy, to suggest that Brown is a representative of â€Å"everyman† (146). In this sense, he seems to characterize anybody who is being persuaded to commit sin or to step outside of the norm (146). Therefore, Young Goodm... Free Essays on Young Goodman Brown The Young in "Young Goodman Brown" When reading Hawthorn’s "Young Goodman Brown", one can note why his main character was ironically nicknamed young good man Brown. " The story is all three: a dream vision, a conventional allegory, and finally an inquiry into the problem of faith that undermines the assumptions upon which the allegory is based."(Bloom, 115) Although Hawthorn tries to confuse the reader with his dreamy allegories, Brown still emerges with one main flaw. Brown’s words, actions, and thoughts are remarkably similar to a child’s. The short story was written in Hawthorn’s early years, which leads one to wonder about his intent. Was he trying to relay a point he had just learned? Struggling to be come a man, Brown learns that there is a darkness in everyone. Every man battles with change from childhood to manhood. "Faith Brown, the wife of three months, is simply "Faith," and Brown is Everyman." (Bloom 117) Many cultures consider marriage as the last step to become an adult. Unfortunately, Brown has many more things to learn. "Initially, he is a naà ¯ve and immature young man who fails to understand the gravity of the step he has taken. Somewhere along his life, Brown has agreed to sell his soul to the devil. Nativity blinds Brown from seeing the severity of his actions. He does not realize that everyone has sin in their lives and there is no reason to sell his soul. Like most children Brown sees his related elders as perfect people. "Brown’s grandfather, as Daniel Hoffman suspects, has had illicit relations with Goody Cloyse. This is the same grandfather who sadistically enjoyed, as the devil tells Brown, having lashed a half-naked "Quaker woman so smartly through the streets." Brown’s father vented his sexual rage in the violent destruction of an Indian Village during King Philip’s War." (Frank, 223) From this passage it is easy to see that his relatives were far from sin. Brown’s amazement of the ... Free Essays on Young Goodman Brown Dreading the Dark of Humanity Nathaniel Hawthorne?s ?Young Goodman Brown,? widely regarded as one of his finest works, illustrates vividly how society and culture can influence one?s sense of reality (53 ). Goodman Brown is everyman of general intelligence striving to live and achieve a better life (60 ). Faith and righteousness were daily themes in Puritan society, however when Goodman Brown faces change in his perception, the once solid foundation is washed away. The journey into the wilderness enlightens Brown to societal truths amidst his struggle within himself and against fellow men. It is a dreaded walk on the dark side of the human heart (26 ). Consuming most of Hawthorne?s tale is a test of faith. For three months Brown has been married to a young woman symbolizing his faith (60 ). She even carries this name and lets her role in the story tie to that aspect of her husband?s life. Brown calls for his wife three times as he stands before the devil at the alter. Goodman then cries, ?My Faith is gone.?(9 ) As Brown is drawn into the deepest shadows of the forest and enters the devils sacred service, Hawthorne dramatizes his feeling that once commitment to evil has been made, its purpose must prevail by securing a shelf in Goodman?s soul. There is no struggle of power to oppose it and in this tale the power is so unequal that Faith, supposedly the Devil?s antagonist, is drawn into the camp of the enemy (11 ). She appears at the service as a baptismal candidate along with Goodman, a faint insinuation that Faith has her own covenant with the Devil. This also suggests that her complicity may be prior to and deeper t han Brown?s, as Faith could?ve played a role in the path of her husband (12 ). Her possible involvement then brings on a submerged irony in the manner in which Faith comes to meet Goodman when he returns to the village, as if she had not been present in the forest. She greets him in a m... Free Essays on Young Goodman Brown In the story, â€Å"Young Goodman Brownâ€Å", there is a distinct presence of good and evil and how a man who represents the world handles them. The paths he takes, and the consequences for his actions are shown in detail as to how they relate to the world today. Also, people can use Goodman Brown=s story as a guide to keeping your faith in God, and if tested to have a strong enough shield to withstand evil and all other outside influences that will occur in life. Another strong emphasis that Nathaniel Hawthorne uses in â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† are symbols such as his wife, Faith, the ribbons, and the man he walks with. Also, all the people at the alter are used as symbols in this story by Hawthorne. Goodman Brown starts the story as a good Christian man with strong faith, but something is calling him to take a journey not knowing the reason why. This something is what will eventually test and may even conquer his faith in the end. I felt as if Goodman Brown is le aving his wife, his faith, and his home. His faith is being tested, which has never been tested before, because in the story his home and wife is the perfect place in which his faith was never tested nor questioned. I also feel that all the experiences he goes through on his journey symbolize every human being. I say this because his experiences match the fears of every human being that does not want their faith to be tested or has never had it tested. When Goodman Brown meets up with the man on which he took the journey with, the man symbolizes the devil. This can also be interpreted that evil comes in all different forms and you can be unaware of it just as Goodman Brown was. Also, in the story, Goodman Brown feels that the path he is taking is the wrong one and he mentions that numerous times to himself and to the man, but kept walking along the path of the wicked, as the man guided him, he kept throwing away his faith and his love of Christ with every step he took... Free Essays on Young Goodman Brown Young Goodman Brown Many fiction stories are based on truthful experiences or on the views of the author on a certain topic. â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† was written by Nathaniel Hawthorne, who was born and raised in Salem, Massachusetts during the early eighteen hundreds. Hawthorne also grew up with all the influences of the Puritan religion and the culture and education that comes along with it. All of these pieces of information are common in the settings and topics of most of Hawthorne’s works. â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† is a story about a man who was just married to his wife, Faith. Through his actions, you can see that it must have been very hard to live during this time because of the rigidity New England puritan society. It was hard for Goodman to be able to tell the difference between reality and dreams. Hawthorne shows us the great importance of our faith in God, our family and friends, and at length, ourselves. The plight of Goodman Brown indicates that without our à ¢â‚¬Å"faith† we are unable to live life to the fullest possible extent. Faith is our key to happiness. The moment he leaves for his encounter with the devil he leaves as a man of faith. When it’s all said and done, he journeys back from that walk through the woods as a changed man. â€Å"Much like the ‘journey’ in which Brown placed so much significance, the fact that further doubt was now placed upon new members of the church would cause later problems in Puritan society and Salem itself† (Trimmer 1). When Goodman comes back he can no longer look at his wife, or anyone else for that matter, with the same faith he had before. The devil’s influence eventually leads Goodman Brown to the Devil’s ceremony, which destroys his faith in his fellow man, disrupting the happiness he once had. In the beginning of his trip into the woods he reassures himself of his love for his wife and his faith in his religion but, throughout the journey, Goodman demon...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Explanation of Indirect Objects for ESL Learners

Explanation of Indirect Objects for ESL Learners Indirect objects are persons or things who receive the benefits of an action. In other words, when somebody does something for someone or something the person or thing it is done for is the indirect object. For example: Tom gave me the book.Melissa bought Tim some chocolate. In the first sentence, the direct object book was given to me, the indirect object. In other words, I received the benefit. In the second sentence, Tim received the direct object chocolate. Notice that the indirect object is placed before the direct object. Indirect Objects Answer Questions Indirect objects answer the questions to whom, to what, for whom or for what. For example: Susan offered Fred some good advice. To whom was advice (direct object in a sentence) offered? - Fred (indirect object) The teacher teaches the students science in the morning. For whom is science (direct object in a sentence) taught? - the students (indirect object) Nouns as Indirect Objects Indirect objects can be nouns (things, objects, people, etc.). Generally, however, indirect objects are usually people or groups of people. This is because indirect objects (people) receive the benefit of some action. For example: I read Peter the report. Peter is the indirect object and the report (what I read) is the direct object. Mary showed Alice her house. Alice is the indirect object and the house (what she showed) is the direct object. Pronouns as Indirect Objects Pronouns can be used as indirect objects. Its important to note that pronouns used as indirect objects must take the object pronoun form. Object pronouns include me, you, him, her, it, us, you, and them. For example: Greg told me the story. Me is the indirect object and the story (what Greg told) is the direct object. The boss lent them the start-up investment. Them is the indirect object and the start-up investment (what the boss lent) is the direct object. Noun Phrases as Indirect Objects Noun phrases (a descriptive phrase ending in a noun: a beautiful vase, an interested, wise, old professor) can also be used as indirect objects. For example: The composer wrote the dedicated, poor singers a song to perform. the dedicated, poor singers are the indirect object (noun phrase form), while a song (what the composer wrote) is the direct object. Relative Clauses as Indirect Objects Relative clauses which define an object can also function as indirect objects. For example: Peter promised the man, who had been waiting for an hour, the next tour of the building. In this case, the man is defined by the relative clause who had been waiting for an hour both of these make up the indirect object. The next tour of the building (what Peter promises) is the direct object.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Cell Biology

Cell Biology Cell Biology What Is Cell Biology? Cell biology is the subdiscipline of biology that studies the basic unit of life, the cell. It deals with all aspects of the cell including cell anatomy, cell division (mitosis and meiosis), and cell processes including  cell respiration, and cell death. Cell biology does not stand alone as a discipline but is closely related to other areas of biology such as genetics, molecular biology, and biochemistry. Key Takeaways As its name implies, cell biology deals with the study of the cell, the basic unit of life.There are two cell types: prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotes do not have a defined nucleus while eukaryotes do.The invention of the microscope was pivotal in scientists ability to properly study cells.A number of career paths, like a clinical researcher, a medical doctor or a pharmacologist are open to those who have studied cell biology.Many important developments have taken place in cell biology. From Hookes description of a cork cell in 1655 to induced pluripotent stem cells advances, cell biology continues to fascinate scientists. Based on one of the basic principles of biology, the cell theory, the study of cells would not have been possible without the invention of the microscope. With the advanced microscopes of today, such as the Scanning Electron Microscope and Transmission Electron Microscope, cell biologists are able to obtain detailed images of the smallest of cell structures and organelles. What Are Cells? All organisms contain cells. Viaframe/Corbis/Getty Images Plus All living organisms are composed of cells. Some organisms are comprised of cells that number in the trillions. There are two primary types of cells: eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells have a defined nucleus, while the prokaryotic nucleus is not defined or contained within a membrane. While all organisms are composed of cells, these cells differ among organisms.  Some of these differing characteristics include cell structure, size, shape, and organelle content. For example, animal cells, bacterial cells, and plant cells have similarities, but they are also noticeably different. Cells have different methods of reproduction. Some of these methods include: binary fission, mitosis, and meiosis. Cells house an organisms genetic material (DNA), which provides instructions for all cellular activity. Why Do Cells Move? Cell movement is necessary for a number of cell functions to occur. Some of these functions include cell division, cell shape determination, fighting off infectious agents and tissue repair. Internal cell movement is needed to transport substances into and out of a cell, as well as to move organelles during cell division. Careers in Cell Biology Study in the field of cell biology can lead to various career paths. Many cell biologists are research scientists who work in industrial or academic laboratories. Other opportunities include: Cell Culture SpecialistClinical Quality AuditorClinical ResearcherFood Drug InspectorIndustrial HygienistMedical DoctorMedical IllustratorMedical WriterPathologistPharmacologistPhysiologistProfessorQuality Control SpecialistTechnical WriterVeterinarian Significant Events in Cell Biology There have been several significant events throughout history that have led to the development of the field of cell biology as it exists today. Below are a few of these major events: 1655 - Robert Hooke gives first description of a cork tree cell.1674 - Leeuwenhoek views protozoa.1683 - Leeuwenhoek views bacteria.1831 - Robert Brown was first to identify the nucleus as an important cell component.1838 - Schleiden and Schwann introduce what would become the Cell Theory.1857 - Kolliker describes mitochondria.1869 - Miescher isolates DNA for the first time.1882 - Kock identifies bacteria.1898 - Golgi discovers the Golgi apparatus.1931 - Ruska builds the first Transmission Electron Microscope.1953 - Watson and Crick propose structure of DNA double-helix.1965 - First commercial Scanning Electron Microscope produced.1997 - First sheep cloned.1998 - Mice cloned.2003 - Human genome DNA sequence draft completed.2006 - Adult mouse skin cells reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS).2010 - Neurons, cardiac muscle, and blood cells created directly from reprogrammed adult cells. Types of Cells The human body has a multitude of different types of cells. These cells differ in structure and function and are suited for the roles they fulfill in the body. Examples of cells in the body include: stem cells, sex cells, blood cells, fat cells and cancer cells.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Granada Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Granada - Assignment Example In another ruling the International Court of Justice suggested that the right to self-defense could be invoked in an isolated low-intensity strike.4 Regardless there is a general standard that is safe for self-defense and where authorized by the UN Security Council force may not be used against another state not even for the purpose of â€Å"rescuing one’s nationals abroad, saving aliens from widespread deprivation of human rights† or as a pre-emptive strike â€Å"against a grave but distant threat†.5 The doctrine of ‘opinio juris sive necessitatis’ which allows an opinion of law or a necessity of law together with â€Å"state practice† dictates that the exceptions to the use of force in international law are far more flexible than they were when the UN Charter 1945 came into being.6 Since the end of World War II, the world has changed significantly to the extent that threats may be perceived differently. The invention of nuclear weapons, an i ncrease in international human rights, â€Å"and the emergence of global terrorism† have â€Å"significantly affected attitudes toward permissible uses of force†.7 In assessing current conditions in the world today, Durant and Durant maintain that international law as it is currently constructed cannot adequately regulate peace and security. A State â€Å"must be ready at any moment to defend itself† and â€Å"when its essential interests are involved† a state â€Å"must be allowed to use any means it considers necessary to its survival†.8 Controversy and debate continuously challenged whether or not there are limitations on the right to self-defense. For example, when the US proposed the Kellog-Briant Pact of 1928, the Pact stated that no prohibition on war could restrict the right of a â€Å"sovereign state† to use force in self-defense.9 A similar statement was made by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East in 1948 which est ablished that state sovereignty alone made self-defense an inherent right.10 The international law on the prohibition against war and the right to self-defense is therefore contested. If the doctrine of opinio juris and state practice creates customary international law, it can be argued that virtually any threat, regardless of how serious might be interpreted as a situation in which the right to self-defense can be invoked. Moreover, if state sovereignty prevails, the inherent right to self-defense gives states the authority to use force against another state for any number of reasons including pre-emptive strikes, or rescuing nationals, or any other purpose that can be peripherally justified, provided the state is protecting its sovereignty. The Invasion of Grenada The US’s invasion of Grenada is just as â€Å"controversial† as the international law prohibiting war except in self-defense.11 When the decision was made to invade Grenada in 1983, it was justified on the grounds that American citizens were in danger and it was necessary to restore peace after a coup. However, it was well-known that the primary goal was to stop the spread of communism anywhere near